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VOLUME III. 1902 -1903 


Manchester Historic Association 




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VOLUME III. 1902 -1903 


Manchester Historic Association 


OFFICERS, 1903. 

President. — Henry W. Herrick. 

Vice-Presidents. — Joseph W. Fellows, Josiah Carpenter. 

Treasurer. — John Dowst. 

Recording Secretary. — Frank W. Sargeant. 

Corresponding Secretary. — G. Waldo Browne. 

Librarian. — Roland Eowell. 

Historiographer. — J. Warren Thyng. 


Henry W. Herrick, ex-officio. 
Frank W. Sargeant, ex-officio. 
George C. Gilmore. 
Charles C. Hayes. 
Charles B. Sturtevant. 
John G. Crawford. 
David Cross. 
G. Waldo Browne. 
Edward P. Richardson. 

publication committee. 

G. Waldo Browne. 
Sylvester C. Gould. 
Francis B. Eaton. 
Roland Rowell. 
J. Arthur Williams. 

Printed by the John £. Clarke Co. 




Preface vii 

"~""\ General James Wilson, Hon. James F. Briggs 1 

j^ Old Bridge Street Pound, Orrin H. Leavitt 27 

— ~ Sketch of Dumbarton, N. H., Ella Mills 33 

> Asiatic Cholera in Manchester, Col. George C. Gilmore 53 

^ Rock Rimmon, William Ellery Moore 58 

Narrative of James Johnson, G. Waldo Browne 60 

Early Recollections of Manchester, Joseph Kidder 65 

Water Supply of Manchester, William B. Blake 79 

Story of a Private Soldier in the Revolution, John 

Foster 86 

The Two James Rogers, Hon. Josiah H. Drummond 97 

I ' Josiah H. Drummond (Sketch), G. Waldo Browne 107 

Derryfield in the Revolution, G. Waldo Browne 110 

Major John Webster, Sebastian S. Griffin 118 

The Story of Lake Massabesic, Francis B. Eaton 121 

George W. Morrison, Hon. Joseph W. Fellows 139 

Then and Now, J. Trask Plumer 159 

The Old Times Muster, J. Trask Plumer 172 

Gen. John Stark's Home Farm, Roland Rowell 183 

Smallpox Epidemic of 1834, Clarence M. Platts 203 

Manchester as a Village 211 

- \- Preserving Places of Historic Interest 215 



Manchester Historic Association, The Editor i 

Proceedings, March 19, 1902 vii 

Proceedings, June 18, 1902 ix 

Proceedings, September 17, 1902 xiii 

Proceedings, October 8, 1902 xiv 

Old New England Roof trees, Mary C. Crawford xv 

Molly Stark's Gentleman Son, Mary C. Crawford xvi 




Caleb Stark's Mansion, Mary C. Crawford xvi 

Francis W. Parker, V. S. C xxi 

Charles H. Bartlett, J. P. T xxiii 

Nathan P. Kidder, L. A. K xxvi 

John M. Chandler, T. P. W. R xxx 

William A. Truesdale, V. S. C xxxiv 

Luther S. Proctor, G. W. B xxxv 

Joseph R. Weston, C xxxvii 

Mrs. Clarissa P. Herrick, H xxxviii 

Horace Pettee, S. E. P xl 

Andrew Mungall, G. W. B xli 

Joseph Kidder, F. B. E xliii 

Charles W. Temple, G. W. B xlvii 

Joseph H. Wig-gin, G. W. B xlix 

Ebenezer Ferren, F. M. C li 

William P. Merrill, S. A. lii 


William H. Elliott, F. B. E 

Gilman Clough, The Editor 

George W. Weeks, G. W. B 

William T. Evans, The Editor 

Rt. Rev. Denis M. Bradley, J. B. D 








Manchester in 1854. From a painting by Baehelder. Frontispiece 


Portrait, Gen. James Wilson, Opp 1 

Eock Rimmon, Opp 58 

Manchester in 1843 70 

Old Town House 76 

Portrait, Josiah H. Drummond 107 

Lake Massabesic, Opp 121 

Cohas Brook 123 

Brown's Island 124 

Brown Homestead, Opp 124 

Proctor Homestead, Opp 126 

Old Cogswell House 127 

Original Massabesic Hotel 129 

Second Massabesic Hotel 130 

Old Folsom Tavern, Opp 131 

Fox Homestead, Opp 132 

Parker Stable, Opp 133 

Parker Farmhouse, Opp 134 

The Willows 137 

Portrait, George W. Morrison, Opp 139 


Gavel, Block and Box presented the Manchester His- 
toric Association by R. L. Reed xi 



Charles H. Bartlett, Opp xxiii 

Nathan P. Kidder, Opp xxvi 

John M. Chandler, Opp xxx 




Luther S. Proctor, Opp xxxv 

Mrs. Clarissa P. Herrick, Opp xxxviii 

Horace Pettee, Opp xl 

Andrew Mtmgall, Opp xlii 

Joseph Kidder, Opp xliv 

Joseph H. Wiggin, Opp xlix 

Ebenezer Ferren, Opp li 

William P. Merrill, Opp lii 


After the delays that usually accompany such an undertak- 
ing, the third volume of the Collections of the Manchester His- 
toric Association is herewith presented to the public. With 
one or two exceptions, the articles have been prepared expressly 
for publication, and it is believed will prove interesting, if not 
valuable reading for a .considerable number. For the first 
time an index has been prepared, which seems essential to the 
completeness of a work of this kind. While the association 
has been occupying pleasant rooms for some time as its head- 
quarters and repository for its growing library, it feels the 
need of more funds with which to carry on the work of publi- 
cation. In truth, the thanks of the society are due those who 
have so generously contributed toward defraying the expense 
of this volume. 

The undersigned take this opportunity to acknowledge their 
indebtedness to those who have so kindly assisted them in the 
preparation of the different papers given here. There are still 
others of quite as great value awaiting their turn, and it is the 
hope of the committee that the matter of publication may be 
continued more regularly than it has in the past. 
Eespectfully submitted. 

Geokge W. Browne, 
Sylvester C. Gould, 
Francis B. Eaton, 


J. Arthur Williams, 

i Publication Committee, 




H *? 
LL) ^ 

X c 
I- ? 


Gen. James Wilson. 



Mr. President : I regret that the duty of furnishing a sketch 
of the life and public services of Hon. James Wilson, late of 
Keene, N. H. s had not been assigned to some one better quali- 
fied to do justice to the memory of this remarkable man. By 
way of introduction, with your permission, I desire to say a few 
words of his father, James Wilson, to show the seed from which 
he sprang. 

James Wilson, the father of James Wilson, Jr., was born in 
Peterboro, N. H., in 1757. He fitted for college at Phillips 
Academy, at Andover, Mass. ; entered Harvard in 1785 ; and 
graduated in 1789. He was reputed to be one of the most 
skillful wrestlers in college, which was then the test of champion- 
ship. He took the badge in his Freshman year and retained it 
during his whole course. His distinction in this particular was 
justified by the remark of John Quincy Adams to his son, 
" Long Jim/' when he learned his parentage, " Your father 
was the best wrestler in college." 

On his graduation he entered the office of Judge Lincoln of 
Worcester, Mass., as a student of the law. He remained with 
Judge Lincoln until December, 1790, when he was called home 
on account of the death of his father. He remained in Peter- 
boro from that time, completing his studies with Judge Jeremiah 
Smith then in practice in the town of Peterboro. He was ad- 
mitted to the New Hampshire Bar in 1792. Judge Smith hav- 
ing been elected to Congress from New Hampshire, and con- 
tinuing in that office for several succeeding years finally, re- 
moved to Exeter and Mr. Wilson continued his practice in his 


native town, until his removal to Keene in the year 1815. 
He retired from the active professional duties of his office on 
the admission of his son to the bar, in 1823, an d devoted his 
time to his private affairs. 

James Wilson, Sr., is represented to have been a good lawyer, 
familiar with the science of the law, a man of quick preception, 
careful and thorough in the preparation of his cases, and he 
conducted them before the court and jury with marked ability 
and success. 

His practice in Cheshire and Hillsborough counties was ex- 
tensive, and he was generally retained on one side or the other 
in every important case. When asked by Mr. Levi Chamberlain 
why he did not address the reason of the jury instead of their 
feelings, he replied : " Too small a mark ; too small a mark 
for me to hit." 

James Wilson was elected from the Hillsborough District of 
New Hampshire a Representative in the Eleventh Congress of 
the United States as a Federalist. He served with distinction 
from May 22, 1809, to March 3, 1811. His term of service, 
though brief, was one that no descendant of his, familiar with 
his services, but will be proud of the record he made. 

There were many young men in New Hampshire who were 
students in his office who afterwards achieved distinction in their 
profession. Among them were Gen. James Miller, John Wilson, 
David Smiley, Thomas F. Goodhue, Zaccheus Parker, Stephen 
P. Steele, David Scott, Charles J. Stewart, and Matthew Perkins 
After he removed to Keene his students were David Steele 
Amos Parker, Amasa Edes, and his son James Wilson, Jr 
Mr. Wilson held many offices of trust and honor in his native 
town. He was moderator from 1800 to 1814; and representa 
tive to the Legislature from 1803 to 1815. He was a member 
of Congress from the Hillsborough District from 1809 to 181 1, 
being the first two years of President Madison's administration. 
He was an old-fashioned Federalist. He was a grateful, dutiful 
son, a good husband, a sympathetic parent, very kind to his 
children and to all his friends ; a good citizen, and noble-heart- 


ed man. He was industrious, just, vigilant in all matters of 
business. He died at Keene, January 4, 1839, universally 
respected and lamented, at the age of 73 years. 

James Wilson, Jr., was born in Peterboro, N. H., March 18, 
1797, and died at Keene, N. H., May 29, i88t. He was 
the son of James Wilson and Elizabeth Steele. His early life 
was passed in his native town, with only such educational privi- 
leges as were there to be had, which at that early day were very 
limited. His mother became an invalid when her son James 
was only two years old, and remained so during the remainder 
of her life, thus depriving him of that kind, maternal care and 
attention so indispensable to the proper development of a young 
mind. She departed this life when he was in the ninth year of 
his age. 

In the year 1807, young Wilson was sent for a few months to 
the academy at New Ipswich. In 1808, he was sent to the 
Atkinson Academy, where he remained for some three or four 
years. In the year 18 13, he attended Phillips (Exeter) Acad- 
emy, at Exeter, N. H., for some six months. 

Our country was then involved in war with Great Britain, 
and young Wilson at sixteen years of age was desirous of join- 
ing the American army, as some of his acquaintances but little 
older than himself had already done. His father would not 
give his consent to his son's enlistment, and he was not old 
enough to be subject to the draft. Disappointed at being de- 
prived of the privilege of entering upon a military career, he 
left Exeter, and returning to his native town he went into the 
North Factory at Peterboro, and continued to work there from 
the Autumn of 1813 until the Spring of 1815, when peace be- 
tween the United States and England was proclaimed. Young 
Wilson went home in the Spring and worked on his father's 
farm as a common farm-laborer. In the Autumn of that year, 
as his father was about removing to Keene, the son picked up 
his books and went back to his studies. 

He entered Middlebury College (Vt.) in 1816 ; graduated from 
that institution in 1826 ; entered his father's office at Keene as a 


student at law, and was admitted to the bar in Cheshire county, 
N. H., at the Fall term, 1823. 

His father, James Wilson, Sr., retired from the active profes- 
sional duties of his office on the admission of his son to the 
bar, and the young man attaining to his father's business, con- 
tinued to practice law in Cheshire, Sullivan, Grafton, and 
Coos counties, until the year 1836, when by a stroke of paraly- 
sis his father became unable to attend to his own private affairs, 
and then required his son's assistance. He then gave up 
the Northern counties and continued the practice of law in 
Cheshire county. 

On leaving college in 1820, and fixing his residence at Keene, 
James Wilson, Jr., entered the military service of the State. 
He was elected Captain of the Keene Light Infantry on the 
first day of January, 182 1, and continued in the militia, con- 
stantly doing duty, until 1839, when he resigned the office of 
Major-General of the Third Division of the New Hampshire 

At the March election in 1825. he was chosen as one of the 
two Representatives from the town of Keene to the State 

In 1828, he was elected Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives of New Hampshire, the duties of which he performed with 
signal ability to the acceptance of all parties. In that House 
there were several men of distingushed reputation and of 
prominent standing in the Whig party, such as the Hon. Ezekiel 
Webster, the Hon. Benjamin M. Farley, the Hon. Joseph Bell, 
the Hon. Parker Noyes, and others from different parts of the 
State. From the year 1825 to the year 1840 inclusive, he rep- 
resented the town of Keene in the State Legislature every year, 
except 1833, 1838, and 1839. The last two years, namely, 1838 
and 1839, he was the candidate of the Whig party in the State 
for Governor, but was defeated by his Democratic opponent. 

The year 1840 was a year of great political awakening in this 
country. The Democratic party had nominated Martin Van 
Buren for President of the United States for a second term. 


The Whigs went into the political battle uuder the banner of 
1 Tippecanoe and Tyler too,' f and with them ' determined to 
' beat little Van.' The Whigs succeeded. Gen. James Wilson, 
of New Hampshire (' Long Jim/ as he was familiarly called), 
did a good deal of political service in that campaign. He 
stumped almost all the New England states, spoke several 
times in Pennsylvania, and gave a whole month's work, on the 
stump, in the State of New York, Mr. Van Buren's state. Mr. 
Van Buren lost New York, Pennsylvania, and most of the New 
England States, and was defeated. 

Gen. Harrison was elected President, and John Tyler Vice- 
President. They were inaugurated on the 4th of March, 1841. 
Gen. Harrison lived only one month after his inauguration, and 
Mr. Tyler succeeded to the Presidency. About June, 1841, 
Mr. Tyler offered to Gen. Wilson the office of Surveyor-General 
of the Public Lands in the then Territories of Wisconsin and 
Iowa, which office he accepted, and took possession of the Sur- 
veyor-General's office, at Dubuque, Iowa, in the early part of 
the summer. He continued to hold that office and to perform 
its duties for four years. In 1845, James K. Polk having been 
elected President, he was removed. 

In 1846, the voters of the town of Keene returned Gen. 
Wilson again, as their representative, to the General Court. 
That year the Whigs and a party styling themselves ' Indepen- 
dent Democrats ' succeeded in defeating the regular old line 
Democracy in New Hampshire. The State was districted for 
the choice of Representatives to Congress, and the following 
year he was elected Representative from the Third Congres- 
sional District to the Thirtieth Congress. He was re-elected to 
the Thirty-First Congress, and held his seat until the 9th day 
of September, 1850, when he resigned and left this Eastern 
country for California. He resided in California eleven years 
continuously, and only returned East at the breaking out of 
the of the Civil War in 1861. On meeting his old friend 
Abraham Lincotn, then President of the United States, Mr. 
Lincoln offered him a Brigadier-General's commission in the 


army of the United States, which offer Gen. Wilson declined, 
for the reason of his advanced age and his physical infirmities. 
He remained East about a year and a half, giving such aid and 
moral support as he could to the Union cause. He returned 
to California in the Autumn of 1862, and resided there until 
1867, when he left the Pacific coast and returned to his old 
home in Keene, to live out the residue of his days among his 
old friends and acquaintances who had been so true and kind 
to him throughout so many, many years. In 1870 and 1871, 
the voters of Keene elected him again to represent them in the 
General Court of the State of New Hampshire. 

He was married to Mary L. Richardson, of Montpelier, Vt., 
November 26, 1823. His wife died in 1848. 

Their children were : Mary, born Oct. 27, 1826, (she married 
John Sherwood of New York); James E., born 1827, died 
March 9, 1832 ; William R. } born Nov. 2, 1830, died March 17, 
1834 ; Annie F., born Sept. 23, 1832, (she married Col. Francis 
S. Fisk) ; Charlotte F., born Aug. 31, 1835, sne (married 
Frank S. Taintor of New York) ; James H., born Dec. 4, 1837 ; 
Daniel W., born Feb. 13, 1841, died Jan. 18, 1846. 

He was widely known as a military man, a lawyer, and an 
orator. His power of addressing and holding jurors, and a 
great multitude in times of excitement was extraordinary as 
will be illustrated in the instances hereafter recorded. 

His celebrated speech speech at the Peterboro Centennial 
received universal commendation. It was in part as follows : 

11 Mr. President : I regret that I am called upon to respond 
to the sentiment which has just been announced, and received 
with so much approbation by this great assembly. Upon look- 
ing over the list of sentiments yesterday, I was informed that 
the one just read was designed to call out that highly respected, 
time honored gentleman, Hon. Jeremiah Smith, of Exeter, a man 
who feels proud of the place of his nativity, and who on all prop- 
er occasions has a good word to say of and for old Peterboro. 
We should have been delighted to have seen that venerable and 
venerated man here, and to have heard him, in his usual elo- 


quent and forcible manner, his reminiscences of by-gone times. 

He has indeed grown old, but not old enough yet to forget 
any good thing. His mind is richly stored with varied learning, 
and his knowledge of the early history of the town, the pecul- 
iarities of its early inhabitants, his great fund of wit and anec- 
dote connected with the first settlers, very far exceeds that of 
any living man ; and there is now no one of the emigrants who 
could so well give an apt response to your highly complimentary 
sentiment as that worthy octogenarian. I was heart-pained to 
learn last evening that his attendance is prevented by physical 
infirmity. In his absence I could have wished that another 
highly respected son of Peterboro, of the Smith family, had 
been here to have spoken in our behalf. I allude to one more 
nearly allied to you, Mr. President, your eldest son, my most 
esteemed friend. We are of nearly the same age. Our friend- 
ship dates back to the days of our childhood. Our intimacy 
commenced in that little, square, hipped-roof schoolhouse that 
formerly stood between your homestead and the homestead of 
my honored father. It was an intimacy in the outset character- 
ized by the ardor of youth, and grew with our increasing years 
into the strong and unwavering friendship of mature manhood. 
There has never been a moment's estrangement. For thirty 
years no frost has chilled it, nor can it grow cold until the clods 
shall rumble upon our coffins. Glad, indeed, should I have 
been to have met once more my friend here, to have grasped 
him by the hand, to have looked upon his slender form and his 
pale features, to have listened to the tones of his clear voice, to 
have caught and treasured up the sentiments of a mind as clear 
as the atmosphere upon the summits of our native hills, and a 
heart as pure as the fountains that gush from their base. 
From the sad tidings that I hear of his declining health, I fear 
that I shall never meet him on this side the grave. May a mer- 
ciful God bless him. 

Well may Peterboro express her joy at the success of her ab- 
sent sons, and pride herself upon them when she numbers such 
men as these among them. 


Your sentiment, sir, breathes the prayer that we, the emi- 
grants, may not forgec the place of our nativity. I can hardly 
realize that I am an emigrant. True, sir, a wave of Providence 
has taken me up, wafted me onward, and cast me upon land 
not far distant. Although my domicile is in another place, it is 
here that I seem most at home. It is here that I enjoy all 
those pleasures derived from early recollection and early associ- 
ations. It is here that every natural object that meets my eye has 
some story to relate of high interest to my mind ; here every 
house and tree, stump and stone, hill and brook, presents to me 
image of some old, familiar, well-loved friend. It is here that 
I meet my earliest friends, and their greeting seems warmer, 
and more cordial than elsewhere. It was here that I first enjoyed 
that substantial Peterboro hospitality so well understood and so 
highly appreciated by every one at all acquainted with the peo- 
ple of the town some some thirty years ago. Let me not be 
understood, Mr. President, as drawing a comparison unfavorable 
to the good people with whom I am in more immediate inter- 
course at the present time. No, sir, I reside among an excel- 
lent and a worthy community, to whom I am bound in a large 
debt of gratitude. They have manifested toward me a kindness 
and a confidence vastly beyond my merits ; and I am sure they 
will not esteem me the less for finding me susceptible of emo- 
tion at the recollections and fond associations of my childhood. 
Forget Peterboro. How can I forget her ? Why, sir, I was 
born just over there. The bones of my ancestors, both paternal 
and maternal, are deposited just over there. And among them 
there repose the remains of my mother. Oh, sir, it would be 
cold and heartless ingratitude to forget the place where one's 
earliest and best friend slumbers in death. 

" Ingratitude. Thou marble-hearted fiend, 
More hideous, when thou show'st thee in a child, 
Than the sea-monster. 1 ' 

Spare me, oh, spare me such a reproach. My prayer to 
Heaven is, that when these eyes shall grow dim, this tongue be- 
come dumb, when these lungs shall cease to heave, and this 


heart to throw off a pulsation, then this head and limbs may 
be laid to crumble down to dust by side of thine, my mother. 

I have watched with intense interest the wonderful improv- 
ments that have been carried forward in my native town within 
the last thirty years. When I was a boy, a weekly mail, carried 
upon horseback by a very honest old man by the name of Gibbs, 
afforded all the mail facilities which the business of the town 
required. Now, sir, we see a stage-coach pass and repass 
through this beautiful village every day, loaded with passengers 
and transporting a heavy mail. Your highways and bridges 
have been astonishingly improved, showing a praiseworthy lib- 
erality on the part of the town to that important subject. Your 
progress in agriculture, manufactures, and the mechanic arts 
exhibits striking evidence of the progress of improvement. 
Look abroad now upon the finely cultivated fields, the substan- 
tial fences, the comfortable, yea, elegant dwellings, the superb 
manufacturing buildings, the splendid churches and seminaries 
of learning, and in view of all these let the mind for a moment 
contrast it with the prospect which presented itself to the eye 
of the first settler as he attained the summit of East moun- 
tain one hundred years ago. Then not a human habitation for 
the eye to repose on over the whole extent of this basin-like 
township — one unbroken forest throughout the eye's most ex- 
tensive range. No sound of music or hum of cheerful industry 
saluted his ear. It was only the howl of the savage beast, or 
the yell of the still more savage man, that broke the appalling 
stillness of the forest. What a wonderful change a hundred 
years hath wrought here, and what unshrinking energy of char- 
acter was requisite to induce the commencement of the under- 

Some of the old objects of interest to me in my younger days 
are gone ; their places, indeed, have been supplied by more ex- 
pensive and elegant structures. Still, I must say, I regret their 
loss. And let me ask, Mr. President, are you quite sure that 
the loss may not manifest itself in some future time ? I allude, 


sir, to the loss of the old church on the hill there, and the old 
beech tree tree that stood hard by. I look, even at this period 
of life, upon that spot with a kind of superstitious reverence. 
Many are the noble resolutions that young minds have formed 
under the shade of the old beech tree. Intellectual indolence 
is the prevailing fault of our times. Under the old beech, in 
my young days, the great and the talented men of this town 
used to assemble, and there discuss with distinguished power 
and ability the most important topics. Religion, politics, litera- 
ture agriculture, and various other important subjects were 
there discussed. Well, distinctly well, do I remember those 
debates carried on by the Smiths, the Morrisons, the Steeles, 
the Holmes, the Robbes, the Scotts, the Todds, the Millers, 
and perhaps I may be excused for adding the Wilsons and 
others. No absurd proposition or ridiculous idea escaped ex- 
posure for a single moment. A debater there had to draw 
himself up close, be precise in his logic, and correct in his lan- 
guage to command respectful attention. Abler discussion was 
never listened to anywhere. Strong thought and brilliant con- 
ceptions broke forth in clear and select language. They were 
reading men, talking men, forcibiy talking men, and sensible 
men. Bright intellectual sparks were constantly emanating 
from those great native minds, and, falling upon younger 
minds, kindled their slumbering energies to subsequent nobler 
exertion. The immediate effect of those discussions could be 
easily traced in the beaming eye and the agitated muscles of 
the excited listeners. It was obvious to an acute observer that 
there was a powerful effort going on in many a young mind 
among the hearers, to seize, retain, and examine some of the 
grand ideas that had been started by the talkers. This rousing 
of the young mind to manly exertion, and aiding it in arriving 
at a consciousness of its own mighty powers, was of great ad- 
vantage where the seeds of true genius had been planted by the 
hand of nature. If any of the Peterboro boys, within the last 
thirty years, have attained to anything like intellectual great- 
ness, my life on it, they date the commencement of their prog- 


ress from the scenes under the old beech tree. A thousand 
times have I thought, Mr. President, if I had the world's wealth 
at my command I would cheerfully have bartered it all for the 
ability to talk as well as those men talked. Antiquity may 
boast of her schools of philosophy ; the present may point to 
her debating clubs and lyceums, and talk loud as it will of 
modern improvement ; give me the sound good sense that 
rolled unrestrained from eloquent lips under the old beech, and 
it is of more worth than all. I shall always respect the spot 
where it grew, and even now it grieves me to see the greensward 
that sheltered its roots torn too roughly by the ploughshare. 

I had purposed, Mr. President, to have asked the attention 
of the audience to some few remarks on the all-important subject 
of education. Old Peterboro has hitherto given her full share 
of educated men to the public, and I cannot but hope that she 
will not now permit her neighbors to go ahead of her in this 
particular. The shades of evening, however, admonish me that 
I must not trespass further. I must tender my thanks to the 
.audience for the very kind and polite attention they have given 
me during my remarks I have felt constrained to make at this 
late hour in the afternoon. Allow me to say in conclusion : 
The sons and daughters of Peterboro, native and adopted : 
in all good deeds may they prove themselves worthy of the 
nobie stock that has gone before them. 

General Wilson was greatly interested in military affairs. He 
was appointed Captain of the Keene Light Infantry January i, 
182 1, and successfully passed through all the various ranks 
until he was appointed Major-General in the Third Division of 
the New Hampshire Militia. He continued in the service until 
1839, when he resigned. At this time there were very few mili- 
tary men his equal. 

He was a strict disciplinarian, popular with his soldiers and 
brought his command to a high state of proficiency. June 28, 
1833, Andrew Jackson, President of the United States, visited 
Concord, N. H. This was the great day at the capital. Thou- 
sands of people gathered at Concord from all parts of the State 


to'pay their respect to the President. He was accompanied by 
Vice-President Martin Van Bure.n, Secretary of War Lewis Cass, 
Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury, Major Andrew f J. Don- 
elson, Secretary of the President, and many distinguished men 
were present. 

The military display was of the highest order. It consisted 
of eight picked companies. The best disciplined, the most 
efficient, the largest and the best drilled was the celebrated 
Keene Light Infantry commanded by Gen. James Wilson. 
This company attracted the attention and excited the admira- 
tion of General Jackson and its Captain was personally con- 
gratulated for its fine appearance by him. 

General Wilson was the most striking and attractive person 
that I ever met. He was a giant physically as well as intellec- 
tually. Wherever he went, whatever he did, he attracted the 
attention of all who saw him. He was beloved by his friends, 
honored by the people, and idolized by his family. There 
was a charm about his personality that made all who knew him 
ever hold him in loving remembrance. New Hampshire never 
had a son more widely loved than Gen. Wilson. " He was 
six feet and four inches in height, well built, erect, with deep set 
bright blue eyes, a wealth of black, curly hair, stern and deter- 
mined, yet fascinating, countenance," and often spoke of himself 
as a rough hewn block from the Granite State, and everywhere 
was spoken of by his friends as " Long Jim Wilson." As a law- 
yer he was able and successful, and won a high reputation. 
As an advocate he had few equals and no superior. Before 
juries his eloquence was irresistible. He could excite them to 
laughter or move them to tears at his will. When appealing to 
the sympathy of the jury his opponents would often say, 
11 Wilson is boring for water," or " pumping for tears." 

Gen. Wilson as an orator was unequaled. His power of ad- 
dressing and holding great multitudes in times of excitement 
was wonderful. He took an active part in the Presidential 
campaign of 1840 and proved himself to be one of the most 
eloquent and efficient popular orators of his time. 


Ex-Governor Bell, in his " Bench and Bar," says of him as 
follows : " His qualifications for this were unequalled ; his 
physique was on a majestic scale ; his voice sonorous ; his lan- 
guage was the purest vernacular ; his logic had the grip of the 
vise ; he was always prodigiously in earnest ; his illustrations 
and witty sallies were irresistible and he often broke out in 
strains of bold and moving eloquence." 

There are many anecdotes told of him, illustrating his won- 
derful influence over the crowds that gathered to hear him. 

He often captured his hearers by the opening sentence of his 
speech. He began one of them, I think, in New York, " I am 
six feet and four in my stockings and every inch a Whig." 

At one of his outdoor meetings in 1840, in the Harrison 
campaign, a shower came up which threatened to disperse the 
audience. He deliberately pulled off his coat (as usual) and 
began, " The only rain that I have any fear of is the reign 
of Martin Van Buren." He had hearers enough after that. 

In some of the States farther west it was the custom of both 
parties to hold public meetings on the same day in the same 
field. When speakers occupied stands not far apart he cap- 
tured the entire crowd and on one occasion he left not a single 
hearer for the other side. 

At the first meeting of the Sons of New Hampshire in Bos- 
ton, in 1843, ne was present and called upon to speak to the 
sentiment, " The families we left behind." Many speakers had 
preceded him and their speeches if good were rather formal, 
but when Gen. Wilson rose to speak the tones of a hearty, sym- 
pathetic voice roused the feelings of his audience and his touch- 
ing picture of the old folk at home stirred every heart to its 
depth. " We will go back," " said he, " and tell the mothers 
and sisters how well the boys behave when they are away from 
home." This speech gave voice to the genuine feeling of all 
hearts and was welcomed with cheering, earnest, prolonged and 
again and again renewed. 

The fame of Gen. Wilson as an orator was well known in 
New Hampshire. When I was a boy, living in Holderness, 


N. H., now Ashland, I saw a poster announcing that James 
Wilson would addresss the people at Wentworth on a certain 
day. Although then a minor I determined to go. It was a 
stormy day ; the snow was deep and I braved the storm and 
arrived at Wentworth in season for the meeting. 

It was held in the church and before Mr. Wilson appeared it 
was filled to its utmost capacity I sat near the pulpit when 
Mr. Wilson came in. His immense physique, his dark, rough 
features, curly, black hair and deep set, blue eyes will never be 
forgotten. The meeting was promptly called to order and Gen. 
Wilson began his speech. He held the vast audience for over 
two hours with such a speech as I never had listened to before, 
and never have since heard surpassed. His speech was upon 
the political issues that divided the political parties. 

It was a masterly effort, forcible, eloquent, and unanswerable. 
The applause was hearty, frequent, and prolonged. He drew a 
parallel between the slave states and the free states ; the con- 
dition between the laborers in the south and at the north ; the 
political power exercised by the south in the government over 
the north. He declared it not only the right but the duty of 
the north to prevent the extension of slavery over the free ter- 
ritories of the United States. He clearly, frankly, and fear- 
lessly defined his position upon the questions involved in the 
contest and closed amid cheers and hearty congratulations of 
his friends. 

The fame of Gen. Wilson as an orator was already known in 
Washington when he entered the National House of Represen- 
tatives, and while there he made several speeches, but facilities 
for reporting them were not equal to those of today and but a 
few brief reports of them are preserved. His great speech on 
the slavery question, on February 19, 1848, attracted great 

One who was present tells me that he went into the House 
and found it filled to its utmost capacity. This person went 
into the Senate chamber first and found it almost deserted. 
Then he went over to the house, and found most of the Sena- 


ors there. Wilson had just begun his speech. The House was 
still, no clapping for pages, no moving about, but all were 
attentively listening to Gen. Wilson and his voice was clear and 
sonorous and reached every part of the House. 

He possessed great power of statement. His utterance was 
rapid, but his enunciation was distinct. At times he was gentle 
and sympathetic ; at others, bold and aggressive ; but the whole 
speech was a remarkable illustration of his power as an orator 
and established his reputation as one of the most eloquent men 
of his day. He was repeatedly interrupted by applause, and at 
the conclusion of his speech he was greeted with round and 
round and most heartily and warmly congratulated by his friends. 

An anecdote of Willian P. Wheeler, the gentleman who suc- 
ceeded Gen. Wilson as leader of the Cheshire county bar, 
gives a glimpse of Wilson on the stump in 1840. Sometime dur- 
ing the sixties Mr. Wheeler made a pleasure trip west and dur- 
ing the trip took a steamer ride down the Ohio. A gentleman 
familiar with the river began to describe objects of interest. 
Learning Mr. Wheeler was from Keene he begged him to tell 
him about Gen. Wilson. After satisfying his curiosity, Mr. 
Wheeler said he would be glad to learn how a resident of Ohio 
knew about Gen. Wilson enough to become an ardent admirer • 

" It happened this way," replied the gentleman : " Business 
obliged me to make a trip to Albany, N. Y., in 1840, during the 
height of the presidential campaign. My business having been 
accomplished, I prepared to return home. On arriving at the 
railway station, I found my train did not leave for a little over 
an hour and to while away the time I went outside and looked 
about. In an opon space near at hand a stand for public 
speaking had been erected and a few people had already gath- 
ered about the stand. From a poster I learned that the elo- 
quent Gen. James Wilson of Keene, N. H , was about to de- 
liver an address. Hearing the approaching band, I walked up 
to the stand, for I always made it a point to hear good speakers 
whenever the opportunity offers. I confess when Gen. Wilson 
was introduced I was greatly disappointed, for I could not be- 


lieve that this dark, rugged looking giant could be a great 
orator. When he began to speak my mind changed, for from 
the moment that I head his voice I stood spell bound. A sec- 
ond's pause enabled me to consult my watch, and to my in- 
tense astonishment I found my train must have been gone sev- 
eral minutes for I had been listening over an hour utterly obliv- 
ious to the passage of time. With a sigh of relief I remem- 
bered there was another train an hour later and I turned to lis- 
ten to the fascinating speaker I had heard. I determined this 
time to keep track of the time and not miss the next train. 
Again I listened with breathless attention. Glancing at my 
watch I discovered 1 had just twenty minutes left to catch my 
train. Again had I been totally unconscious of the flight of 
time. Although it was not over five minutes' walk to the sta- 
tion I did not dare listen further, for if I did I knew I should 
miss my train a second time. I resolutely faced about and 
started for the station. Imagine my astonishment. When I 
first faced the speaker, perhaps 200 people were present. Now 
I was facing a great audience of from 8,000 to 10,000 people 
(the papers said the larger number). I had been so completely 
engrossed in listening that I had been utterly unconscious of 
the addition to the assemblage. It took me over half an hour 
to work my passage through that crowd and if Gen. Wilson had 
not closed his speech I might never have got through it. I 
again missed my train and was obliged to wait for a night train. 
I shall always regret that I did not wait and hear the close of 
that wonderful address. Every one who came in range of his 
wonderful voice had been drawn to the speaker and held by 
him just as a powerful magnet' attracts and holds iron filings." 
Hon. John P. Hale said that his first opportunity to hear 
Gen. Wilson speak was on April 22, 1861. The war had begun 
and word was sent to all the neighboring towns that Gen. Wil- 
son was in Keene on a visit and would address a mass meeting 
in Central Square, Keene, on that day. Long before the hour the 
Square was crowded. He was on hand early and got a good 
position near the speaker's stand. The band and many citizens 


went to Wilson's house and escorted his carriage to the stand. 
Describing the moment when the carriage arrived, McClin- 
tock's tf History of New Hampshire " says : 

" When the door was opened and the familiar form of the 
old hero was seen mounting the rostrum, such tumultuous ap- 
plause was heard as was never known in Keene before." Being 
but a schoolboy I don't remember much of the address, but the 
effect of his appeal for volunteers was electrical. When the 
old man, so crippled by rheumatism that he could not walk 
without a cane, took his seat, men started for the platform to 
enlist from all parts of the audience. Some could not wait to 
go around to the steps but climbed over the railings. Describ- 
ing the closing of this speech, McClintock's " History of 
New Hampshire " says : ■' It was a scene never to be forgot- 
ten by those who were present; and it did much good, the im- 
mediate effect being to add many names to the rolls of the 

As illustrating the power of Wilson's eloquence, the following 
incident will serve to show that it was a kind not dependent on 
favoring conditions. When making the survey of Iowa, it was 
found that many squatters had settled in certain sections of the 
State, and these sections they declared should not be surveyed. 
In due time Wilson with his outfit of surveyors arrived near the 
settlement of the most turbulent gang of squatters in the State. 
Needing supplies, he sent one of his men to the nearest trading 
post to purchase what was wanted, with instructions to return 
and get the camp team if he found he could get what he needed. 
The supplies were purchased and paid for, but when the team 
arrived delivery was refused, and the man returned and stated 
that the post was full of roughs, who had learned in some way 
that the supplies were for the United States surveyors. Seeing 
the critical moment was at hand, Wilson went at once to the 
store, accompanied by several of his men and his younger broth- 
er Robert, (in after years Col. " Bob " of the Fourteenth New 
Hampshire). The two Wilsons entered the store and asked 
the proprietor if certain goods had been bought and paid for ; 


if so, why he reiused to deliver them ? Then the roughs de- 
clared they had taken possession of the store and until they 
were dispossesssed no delivery could be made. Wilson turned to 
his brother and said : " Bob, these gentlemen seem a little 
diffident about going out alone. If you will escort them to the 
door, I will see them safely out." 

Robert Wilson, while not as tall as the General, was about as 
heavy ; he was an expert boxer and wrestler, and almost a 
match in strength for the General himself. He seized the near- 
est man and flung him to the General, who pitched him head- 
long out. Jn a couple of minutes a dozen men had been 
spread-eagled over that section of Iowa. They scrambled to 
their feet, scraped their eyes and noses clear of subsoil, freed 
their mouths of grass roots, drew their weapons and made ready 
for a fight to the dea:h. 

Seeing " Bob " was in possession, Wilson coolly stepped out- 
side and said, " Boys, I got a word to say." It would not seem 
as if he had selected an especially favorable opportunity for 
speech making. In five minutes these men, who thirsted for 
his blood, were subjected ; in ten, they were wildly cheering 
him ; in fifteen, the United States surveyors were their long 
lost brothers. They rallied about Wilson, eager to shake his 
hand. They insisted on loading his team with supplies, and 
then escorted him in triumph to his camp. Wilson had won 
their allegiance, not only to himself but to the government. 
The next day the competition for the privilege of carrying the 
chains and flags for the surveyors became strong. Their camp 
was kept supplied with game, and the roughest neighborhood in 
Iowa became a picnic giound for the camp of surveyors. Not 
content with this they sent word ahead that anything they could 
do was not too good for Wilson, and charged their friends to 
see that he lacked nothing they could supply. By the magic 
of his tongue Wilson had changed a band of lawless despera- 
does into friends as loyal to his bidding as the tribesmen of 
a Scottish chieftain. 

The following sketch of General Wilson, written by Moses A. 


Cartland, describes him so fully and accurately, that I will give 
it entire as it came from the pen of the g.fted author. It was 
written many years ago by this personal friend of Gen. Wilson. 

" Almost everybody in this state knows General Wilson 
by the familiar, but not very elegant, cognomen, " Long 
Jim." Still, there is more meaning and appropriateness in it 
than a fastidious ear might he aware of ' Long,' he certainly 
is — though not an Anak, nor stretched to the immeasurable 
length of 'Long John ' of Chicago. And, to his credit, he is 
one of those unsophisticated and unstarched men who may be 
Jimmed without offending their delicacy or detracting from their 
integiity. There are some such men who boast no royal pride, 
but pass along, in republican simplicity, claiming the humblest 
citizen as a brother, and saying to the highest, as Black Hawk 
did to the President, 'lama man, and you are another.' ' Don't 
thee and thou us,' said the pompous justices of England to the 
plain, blunt Quaker, Fox. ' Use such familiarities to our ser- 
vants, but not to magistrates,' said they. And a good deal of 
that stiffening has crept down into the veins of these demo- 
cratic times. The Quakers used to take Washington by the 
hand, while President of the United States, and address him, 
as Penn had the king before, simply as ' George.' The great 
man seemed rather pleased with a greeting which bespoke the 
the fraternizing affection of home, and often reciprocated it with 
the like simplicity of a brother. Some little sprig of aristocracy, 
better furnished with broadcloth than with brains, would have 
resented a familiarity that made him but ' common clay.' 

" But not to dwell on these things, it must be admitted that 
Gen. Wilson is distinguished, in an eminent degree, for simple, 
unostentatious habits in his intercourse, and unvarying courtesy 
of demeanor. He probably feels that he is a man, and not an 
ape. Not a mere buckram fop or dandy — one of those pre- 
cious things, so numerous in sunny weather, that 

' Present a body which, at most, 
Is less substantial than a ghost .' 

" Had Robert Burns been an orator instead of a poet, there 


would have been a very striking resemblance between him and 
Gen. Wilson. And there is reason for this ; for the latter is 
of Scottish descent, and his veins are full of Scotch feelings 
and fire, tempered with that earnest, Irish enthusiasm, which 
he derives from one branch of his ancestral line. Those who 
know anything of the noble hearted, strong-willed poet, will see 
very strong points of resemblance between them. The same 
wild scenes of nature, the same 

' Land of the mountain and the flood. 
Of dark brown heath and shaggy wood,' 

first opened alike to their youthful eyes. Burns, in his boy- 
hood, followed the plough, and pressed his wild, free feet to the 
old Caledonian hills ; while the American boy bent to the same 
rustic employment, and learned freedom like him in our own 
beloved Scotland. The same free, generous, and impetuous 
spirit that swelled in the bosom of one, now characterizes the 
other. Alike in disdaining the folly of lordly life and the 
1 rattling equipage ' of wealth and fashion, the same glorious 
spirit of independence that Burns worshipped, as 'lord of the 
lion heart and eagle eye,' is equally the idol of the New Hamp- 
shire orator. If the music of the one fell like a transcendent 
charm upon the Scottish ear, no less potent, in a different ca - 
pacity, is the voice of the other to stir the pulse or win the 
heart. The same martial fire, the same restless and indignant 
hatred of tyranny, that burned in the Scotchman's veins, now 
runs in the American's. 

" Compare them physically, and the same resemblance is ap- 
parent ; with an exception, however, for the eye of Burns was 
the most distinctive feature of his face. Poetry lingered in its 
radiance ; and when the bard felt the struggling of the mighty 
nature within him, his eye is said to have burned and kindled 
with an 'almost insufferable light.' In Gen. Wilson, the 
same feature is often lighted up with terrible power. To a 
stranger, Gen. Wilson would not appear the lion he actually is 
when aroused and in the midst of one of his impassioned 
strains of eloquence — as Charles Lamb has said of books — 


that is eloquence. He would then betaken for some hard- 
faced ploughman, ungifted with that ' mighty magic' which puts 
a tongue in everything that leads an assembly captive. I have 
attended public meetings when he was to address the people, 
and noted the curious inquiries and sage remarks of those who 
had never before seen him, and knew nothing of his powers as 
a speaker. Plainly attired, and in the most unstudied manner, 
he would enter the house and sit in modest carelessness await- 
ing the gathering of his audience. No stranger eye would be 
fixed on him as the hero of the scene. ' Where is he ? ' would 
be the inquiry. * There he is — that coarse looking man, bend- 
ing forward, with the aspect of a long ' Vermont Jonathan/ 
would be the reply. ' That Gen. Wilson ? — why, he don't 
look as though he could say anything. See, there, I guess your 
phrenology is all knocked in the head now. He looks like an 
old plough jogger.' Such would be the comments. But he 
speaks — at first with the simplicity and courteous phraseology 
that distinguishes the gallant man always. He stretches him- 
self up — raises his stentorian voice as he warms with his sub- 
ject — period upon period goes rolling out upon the audience, 
and echoing back and up like ocean tones of the sea. The 
orator seems laboring and dashing forward like one of those 
' oak leviathans ' of the deep, crushing the haughty waves be- 
neath its keel, and wrestling onward against the tempest. ' It is 
then you begin to realize the awakening of that ' dormant thun- 
der ' which you so little dreamed was sleeping in that awkward 
form and unpromising aspect. You are borne onward by the 
impetuous current, or stirred by some startling picture of polit- 
ical folly or aggravated wrong, until it would seem as though 
the old dead had been summoned back to rebuke the living. 

" But in all this there is no ungenerous taunt — no flippant 
blackguardism — no impeachment of his opponent's motives or 
abilities, but an exhibition of the loftier and better feelings. 
In this respect Gen. Wilson occupies a more elevated position 
than most of the political orators of the day. He scorns the 
tricks and slang of the demagogue. He never descends to them. 


His language is chosen with even the nice taste of the scholar; 
and while his periods oftentimes exhibit a peculiar beauty and 
finish, they are full of energy and charmed with fire — 'as 
lighting lurks in the drops of the summer clouds.' He never 
caters to the vulgar appetite which riots in abusive epithet and 
unmanly detraction. Nor does he ever stop to repel the base 
attack and calumny so rife in partizan warfare. But he stands 
up like the storm-defying pillar, that mocks alike the fury of the 
tempest and the wave, and he bears his head aloft into the sun- 
shine and bids them beat on." 

The following is an extract from a speech by Gen. James 
Wilson on the Slavery Question, February 16, 1849. 

It has been said by some one, that ' man is the child of cir- 
cumstance.' It is a sage remark, and true ; and to me it is not 
surprising that gentlemen should entertain different opinions, 
and should rise here in debate and express opposite views upon 
the subject of slavery. I know, can feel, and realize, that my 
own views and opinions are influenced much by the impressions 
received in childhood ; and while 1 am conscious of that in my- 
self, it is but just to infer that other men are influenced by the 
circumstances by which they were surrounded du ring the recep- 
tive period of early life. It excites no marvel in my mind that 
gentlemen who have first seen the light of day in the South — 
who have first opened their eyes to the realities of life under the 
auspices of that institution — who wtre early taught to command 
and thai it was their right to be obeyed — who had but to say 
to a certain class of individuals around them, 'Come,' and they 
would come ; ' Go/ and they would go. I can very well under- 
stand how it is that gentlemen, accustomed from their child- 
hood to command, being nurtured in this way up to the condi. 
tion of manhood, should entertain entirely different opinions 
from those which I, and those which have been brought up as I 
have been, entertained. In the northern States of this Union, we 
are taught from childhood to look upon labor as the condition 
of life ; to think from the outset that we are born to labor. 
The child is instructed and made to know that if he wants any- 


thing done within the compass of his own ability, he must do 
it for himself. He is encouraged to effort, and compelled, if 
need be, to make it. Labor becomes habit. 

I have said, sir, that in the free labor States of this Union, 
even the little children are required to labor according to their 
intellectual ability and physical strength. Even from its cradle 
it is put to work. It is aroused from its morning slumbers to 
be greeted by the smiles of a kind mother, and is encouraged to 
make the effort to do for itself what it may be able to do. It is 
not, to be sure, furnished with the heavy tools, the drills and 
hammers, picks and gads, of the miner, and sent to sink shafts 
in trap rock of limestone, in search of copper ore ; it is not 
furnished with a spade and windlass, rope and tub, and sent 
away to sink its shaft in clay diggings, in search of lead mineral. 
No, sir ; but its morning bath and wardrobe attended to, and 
its breakfast finished, it has its working tools, consisting of 
some simple books and carefully arranged in a little satchel, 
wrought all over with pictures of birds, and butterflies, and 
flowers, in gay colors, by the hand of a kind sister. Thus 
equipped, it is sent away to the village school, to work — to 
work. It begins to sink its shaft down into its own intellect ; 
it sinks on and on, deeper and deeper. Encouraged by its suc- 
cess, it perseveres, until, by and by, it brings up to view, and for 
the use of mankind, treasures infinitely more valuable than the 
gold from the mines of Mexico, or Peru, or California — gems 
more brilliant than ever sparkled upon the brow of queen, or 
blazed in the hall of royalty. 

I undertake to say that, for the last fifty years of the history 
of this goverment, this great slavery question has been the 
very center and focus of all our political action : the focal point 
around which every great national interest has revolved. 

I might illustrate by comparison with the movements of 
the planets in their orbits around the natural sun. The figure 
of speech would not be quite accurate and appropriate, because 
when we speak of the natural sun, we convey to the mind the 
idea of light and heat, warmth and life-giving energy through- 


out the sphere of its influence ; while that central point of our 
political action is as black and dark as Egyptian darkness ; as 
cold and heartless, and unsympathizing as the icebergs that 
roll in the Arctic ocean. 

There was then, a certain, distinct, and definite tract of 
country, to which the Constitution of the United States was to 
apply. And now let me ask any member of the committee to 
take the journal of that convention in his hand, and say whether 
he could believe that the men of that convention, who were 
brought together for the purpose of framing a Constitution for 
the United States, did, in fact, form an instrument with all the 
properties of a monstrous gum elastic overshoe inverted, the 
toe of which could be drawn on over the north pole, the heel 
hitched down over some tall mountain near the Isthmus of 
Darien ? The very idea is too preposterous to be entertained 
for a moment by any sensible man of fair, impartial mind. 

I desire to acquit myself, that my own conscience will not 
upbraid me, and that, when I shall pass away, no reproach shall 
fall on me, or my children after me, for my acts here on this 
momentous question. I have, sir, an only son, now a little fel- 
low, whom some of this committe may have seen here. Think 
you, that when I am gone, and he shall grow up to manhood, 
and shall come forward to act his part among the citizen* of 
the country, I will leave it to be cast in his teeth, as a reproach, 
that his father voted to send slavery into those territories ? No ; 
oh, no ; I look reverently up to the Father of us all, and fer- 
vently implore of Him to spare that child that reproach. May 
God forbid it. 

It shall not be in the power of any man to shake a men- 
acing finger at me, and look me in the face with a gibe of con- 


tempt, and say to me in the insulting language of a former rep- 
resentative from Virginia (Mr. Randolph), ' we have conquered 
you and we will conquer you again ; we have not conquered 
you by the black slaves of the South, but by the white slaves of 
the North.' No, sir ; that remark shall never apply to me. 
Gentlemen need not talk to me, or attempt to frighten me, by 
threats of the dissolution of the Union. Sir, I do not permit 
myself to talk or even think about the dissolution of the Union ; 
very few northern men do. We all look upon such a thing as 
impossible. But, sir, if the alternative should be presented to 
me of the extension of slavery or the dissolution of the Union, 
I would say rather then extend slavery, let the Union, aye, 
the Universe itself, be disssolved. Never, never will I raise 
my hand or my voice to give a vote by which slavery can or 
may be extended. As God is my Judge, I cannot, I will not 
be moved from the purpose I have now announced. 

Mr. Chairman, I have but imperfecty accomplished the duty 
I had assigned myself on this momentous question. But I am 
admonished that the pendulum of the clock is upon the last 
vibration of the hour allotted to me. I have made up the rec- 
ord of this day's work of my life imperfectly I know. But I am 
willing it should be unrolled and read by the whole people 
whom I have the honor to represent; I am willing it should be 
read by the people of this great country ; above all, I am will- 
ing it should be unrolled and read by the light of Eternity, in 
the presence of the assembled universe, and to abide the de- 
cree of the Omnipotent Judge upon the record 

It is impossible to give an adequate description of the elo- 
quence of this distinguished man. He must have been seen 
and heard to be appreciated. His great oratorical efforts were 
made many years ago. The men who were so charmed and cap- 
tivated by his eloquence have passed away. A few still remain ; 
they are scattered and inaccessible. It is only left for us to 



glean what we can from a few printed speeches that have been 
preserved, ar.d to brief biographical sketches and to anecdotes 
and traditions that have been handed down from a former gener- 
ation. To these I have frequently referred and quoted in this 
paper. I am conscious that my work has been poorly done. 
If I have contributed in any manner to throw light on the char- 
acter and services of this honored and idolized son of New 
Hampshire I am satisfied. 

The Old Bridge - Street Pound. 


Mr. President and Gentlemen : Having been in the city 
but few years comparatively, and having taken no part in the 
municipal or business affairs, I feel a little out of place in com- 
ing before the Manchester Historic Association to discuss mat- 
ters relating to the early history of localities with which nearly 
all of you are better acquainted than I am. But my idea is that 
the object of an organization of this kind should be to preserve 
material proofs as well as written records of former methods 
where it is possible to do so, and having expressed at various 
times my opinion that the old pound should be preserved as it 
is, if not restored to its original form, I have been invited to 
prepare a paper on the subject for this meeting, and I hope I 
shall be pardoned for making a slight digression from my sub- 
ject for the sake of explaining, or, perhaps, excusing my inter- 
est in the matter. 

Perhaps my habit of reading puzzle pictures to get views 
of things which do not appear on the surface, has got me in the 
way of looking crosswise at some matters which were not in- 
tended for such inspection, but it seems to me that the policy, 
as far any polcy is shown in the methods employed about 
this city, is to work largely for the present with little regard to 
the future and less respect for the past. 

To illustrate this point I will name four boiling springs in 
the northern part of the city, which originally supplied many 
families each with pure, cold water, but have been covered by 


the city dumps during the process of making streets. One of 
these springs is in the gulley on the west side of Elm street and 
north of Penacook ; one is near the crossing of Chestnut and 
Sagamore streets ; one, just east east of Pine, is now under the 
fill made for Sagamore street, and worst of all, the spring which 
supplied the camping ground when the soldiers were quartered 
at the north end during the early days of the civil war, and later, 
was included in the old fair ground and had a half hogshead 
set in it which was always full, is now under the dump of Lib- 
erty street. This condition being found in such a limited local- 
ity would indicate that many more with which I was not familiar 
have gone the same way. Any of these could have been per- 
petuated by inserting pipes to biing the water to the surface, 
and without interfering with the construction of the streets or 
other desirable changes. But they are gone, and the people 
are supplied with water taken from the muddiest portion of 
Massabesic, while we have a Board of Health to look after the 
sanitary affairs ; and even the peslhouse is to be supplied with 
" city water " to avoid too much of a change when patients are 
carried there. 

Another matter on which I have not recovered from a desire 
to express myself is the filling of the ponds on the commons. 
When I came here there was a pond on Merrimack common, 
and one Hanover common, both walled with split stone, so that 
children or dogs which got in must be helped out or drown. 
With all that water in sight no dog or even bird could get a drink. 
It was finally decided that the water was impure and endang- 
ered public health by its emanations, and they were filled up. 

My belief was and still is that if the walls had been removed 
and sloping gravel banks substituted, so that children could 
wade, dogs swim and birds drink ; silt basins put at the inlet so 
that sediment would settle where it could be dipped out ; pond 
lillics planted to make use of the undesirable elements in water, 
the water could have been kept as pure as our city supply is 
under present conditions, and aged people and invalids could 
have been refreshed by the ever restful spectacle of sparkling 


waves in contrast with the dust of the streets and clatter of 
pavements. But now, with Mile brook running unused under 
the whole length of these commons, we are buying water every 
winter to make skating ponds which kill the grass so it is late in 
the spring or summer before the crop of annual weeds covers 
the reeking mud with the kindly mantle of green. 

It was by observing these transactions that I was led, years 
ago, to speak for the preservation of the relic of former cus- 
toms which still remains in the ruin of the old " town pound." 

As it is customary for amateur writers or lecturers, when 
calied upon to treat any agricultural subject, to go back and 
tell when and where the plant was discovered, how it became 
distributed, how it has been improved and what the average 
yield is per acre, I may be pardoned for briefly referring to the 
history and use of the institution known in former times as the 
" town pound." 

In the days of the pioneers, when clearings were scattered 
and only the cultivated fields were fenced, cattle were turned 
into the forests to get their living on wild grass and browse, 
so it often happened that they strayed too far and found their 
way into poorly protected fields of some distant neighbor. It 
is related that people in Massachusetts were once in the habit 
of driving cattle up into this section to get their living as best 
they could through the summer, and they became very annoy- 
ing to the scattered farmers among whom they foraged. Peo- 
ple at that primitive age had not evolved the idea of sending 
tramps along to the next town to find new victims, so they con- 
ceived the plan of constructing enclosures where stray animals 
could be confined and cared for until the owner called for them 
and paid for the food and trouble. This was a protection to 
the farmers and a kindness to owners of stock who rather pay a 
reasonable sum for such care than wander aimlessly in the wild 
forest in search of their animals which might be doing great 
injury to some growing crop. 

This method of disposing of stray animals was continued 
long after every man who owned stock was supposed to have a 


pasture fenced for its use. But the idea that the highway was 
public property still led some men to think that they were not 
trespassing on the rights of others by turning their cows through 
the barnyard bars and dogging them down the road, and when 
this practice became unbearable to the neighbors whose expost 
ulations failed to bring reform, the pound was resorted to as a 
lesson in law. It has also been used as an instrument of re- 
venge. A man would find an animal belonging to some neigh- 
bor with whom he was not on friendly terms browsing in his 
field or running in the road, and would drive the animal to the 
pound if it was several miles farther away than the home of the 
owner. I have known a man to lead a horse two miles out of 
his way to get to the pound without going past the house of the 
owner, when the pound was four miles away and the men lived 
less than half a mile apart. 

A pound-keeper was among the officers annually elected by 
the town, and his duty was to supply impounded animals with 
food and water, advertise them if not called for within a cer- 
tain time, and get his pay from the owner of the stock when it 
was taken away. Another officer closely connected with the 
pound keeper was the '• field driver," and his duty, and some- 
times privilege, was to drive to pound animals found trespass- 
ing or in anyway troubling the settlers. As this was a minor posi 
tion with little work and no pay, it was unually filled by nomi 
nation, and the young men in town who had been married since 
the last election were honored with this mark of the respect and 
confidence of their fellow citizens, sometimes twenty or more 
being chosen at a single meeting. 

In my native town, in Maine, an article which appeared in 
the warrant, regularly for many years, was: " To see if the 
town will allow loose cattle to run at large all or any part of the 
year." This was usually passed over without action, and at last 
some one discovered and announced that men were not obliged 
to fence their fields, and that when cattle were turned into the 
highway, without a keeper, they were, in effect, turned into 


their neighbor's cornfield, and that the town had no authority 
to legalize such action. Soon after this the field-drivers were 
discontinued, and it was voted that every barnyard in town 
should be a pound and every man who had a barnyard was 
appointed pound keeper and authorized to confine stray animals 
and collect pay for the same from their owners. This ended 
the pound business in that town. 

By a somewhat hurried examination of the two histories of 
Manchester (Potter's and Clarke's), I find that they agree on 
one point: that in 1800 the town voted to build a pound at the 
south end of the church at the Center. Clarke's says this was 
used till 1830, but says nothing about its successor as being 
located or built. Speaking of the Stevens farm, which is a 
part of what is now the city farm, it says : " On the old farm 
is an unused pesthouse and a pound." And here arises a 
question which I have been unable to solve, for it continues : 
" A new penthouse was built of brick in 1874 upon the old farm 
near the Mammoth road." Where is or was that brick pest- 
house ? 

Potter's history relates that the pound to be built in 1800 at 
the south end of the church, was to be seven feet high, with 
square posts, and rails of pine or cedar heart wood. 

While both agree that this pound served until 1830, Potter's 
speaks of the vote to build another, under the transactions of 
1840, so there are ten years that we do not know whether a 
pound was maintained or not. 

The ruins of the structure now under consideration are on 
land owned by the city and in what is a part of Derryfield Park, 
so there would be no outlay for purchasing the site, it being in 
the park and near the road which is most used in going to the 
Weston Observatory. It is in a prominent place and would be 
an object of interest to visitors who would seek information as 
to its origin and use, and, standing on that spot, with the clat- 
ter of electric cars and the bustle of a city all about them, 
could realize more fully than in any other way that here, where 
they see all these modern conveniences and signs of activity 


under electric lights the supply for which is brought on a simple 
wire, was once a wilderness, and in the last century the farmers 
worked in their fields with the flint lock musket leaning against 
a stump, for protection rather than pleasure, and cattle roamed 
at large and took their chances among the wild and savage 
beasts. That right here, on this spot, the scenes of frontier 
life have been enacted in real earnest and have passed into 
the history which we read without fully realizing that it is more 
authentic than the tales of fiction. 

For these reasons and under existing conditions I hold that 
it would be wise and proper for this association to take some 
steps to induce the city to perpetuate this relic* and restore or 
permit the association to restore as far the remaining material 
will allow, the walls which have fallen, so as to show a design of 
something more than a pile of rocks, and lead to questions and 
answers which will keep alive the knowledge that we still have 
one link which connects us with the dim and distant past. 

The people of the present seem to be seeking to make their 
own mark, and change everything that passes through their 
hands to make it conform with the present idea of symmetry or 
beauty, or style which too often lacks both of the other features 
named. We expend large sums in removing rocks and exter- 
minating native shrubs, and as much more constructing " rock- 
work " and planting foreign shrubs which would disgrace any 
native hedgerow, and, after all this outlay to destroy natural 
objects for the sake of imitating them, the imitation is a failure 
and the change is no improvement. 

Therefore let us claim this one spot and save it from the 
present epidemic of change and destruction. Let the willows 
and wild cherry trees grow inside if they will; but have the 
outer walls exposed to view to show that there was system in 
the " madness " which preserved it. 

Sketch of Dunbarton, N. H, 


Dunbarton is a town "set upon a hill which cannot be hid." 
The highest point of land is on the farm of Benjamin Lord, 
north of the Center, and is 779 feet above the sea level. From that 
spot, and from many other places nearly as high, the views of 
hills and mountains are beautiful and grand beyond description. 

The twin Uncanoonucs are near neighbors on the south, 
Monadnock, farther off on the south-west, and Kearsarge twenty 
miles to the north west. On the northern horizon are seen 
Mount Washington and other peaks of the White Mountains. 

The longest hill in town is the mile-long Mills hill, and mid- 
way on its slope live descendants of Thomas Mills, one of the 
first settlers. Among other hills are Duncanowett, Hammond, 
Tenney, Grapevine, Harris, Legache, and Prospect Hills. 

No rivers run through the town, but there are numerous 
brooks where trout fishing is pursued with more or less success. 

No body of water is large enough to be called a lake, but 
Gorham Pond is a beautiful sheet of water and on its banks 
picnics are held. Stark's and Kimball's Ponds have furnished 
water power for mills, the latter, owned by Willie F. Paige, 
is still in use. Long Pond, in the south part of the town, was 
the scene of a tragedy in 1879, when Moses Merrill, an officer 
at the State Industrial School, Manchester, was drowned in an 
ineffectual attempt to save an inmate of that institution. 

One portion of the south part of the town is called Skeeter- 
boro, another Mountalona, so named by James Rogers, one of 
the first settlers, from the place in Ireland from whence he 


came. 1 East of the Center is Guinea, so called because some 
negroes once lived there. The village of North Dunbarton is 
also called Page's Corner ; and not far away to the eastward is 
a hill known as Onestack, because one large stack of hay stood 
there for many years. A brook bears the same name. 

Those who know Dunbarton only in the present can hardly 
realize that 1450 people ever lived there at one time, but that 
was the census in 1820. The first census, taken 1767, was 
271. In 1840 it was 1067 ; in 1890, only 523. The last census 
gave about 575. 

The first settlement was made in 1740 2 by James Rogers and 
Joseph Putney on the land known as the " Great Meadows," 
now owned by James M. Bailey. They were driven away by 
the Indians for a time. A stone now marks the spot where 
-stood the only apple tree spared by the Indians. Probably the 
first boy born in town belonged to one of these families. James 
Rogers was shot by Ebenezer Ayer, who mistook him in the dark 
for a bear, as he wore a bearskin coat. He was the father of 
Major Robert Rogers, celebrated as the leader of the rauger 
corps of the French and Indian wars. 

About 175 1 William Stinson, John Hogg, and Thomas Mills 
settled in the west part of the town. Sarah, daughter of Thom- 
as Mills, was the first girl born in town. Her birthplace was a 
log cabin on the farm now owned by John C. and George F. 

For fourteen years the town was called Starkstown in honor 
of Archibald Stark, one of the first land owners (though not a 
resident), and father of General John Stark. In 1765 the 
town was incorporated, and was named, with a slight change, 

1. The enrly wi iters generally credited Jnmes Uppers with lieingof Scotch. 
Irish nativity, owing to the fact 1 hat he was confused with another person of the 
same name who livid in Londonderry. (Sw Drummoml's "Junes Hovers of . 
Dunbarton and James Rogers of Londonderry.") The Dnnharton Hover* was un- 
douhiedly of English irth, in winch case, the term " M"linttilona," or " .Monte- 
lonv, n must have had some other derivation than that commonly ascribed to it. 
— Editor. 

2. Probably 1739 and the Rogers fimllyat least cime from Massachusetts. 
T v iU wii.n tin" I'll tn.ty or i'udney family seem to have been located in the winter of 
ISid 1840. — EuiTOH. 


for Dumbarton 3 in Scotland near which place Stark and other 
emigrants had lived. 

Dunbarton was one of the towns taken from Hillsborough 
County to form the County of Merrimack. Its centennial was 
duly celebrated and attended by a vast concourse of invited 
guests and towns people. A report of its proceedings was com- 
piled by Rev. Sylvanus Hayward. Though small in area and 
population, Dunbarton occupies a large place in the hearts of 
its sons and daughters. However dear our adopted homes may 
become, we still feel that "whatever skies above us rise the 
hills, the hills are home." 11.63322 

At the centennial Rev. George A. Putnam paid a glowing 
tribute to his native town, saying : " Dunbarton is one of the 
most intelligent and best educated communities in New Eng. 
land. I think it will be hard to find another place where, in 
proportion to its population, so many young men have been 
liberally educated and have entered some of the learned pro- 
fessions, where so many young men and women have become 
first class teachers of common schools. My own observation 
has been altogether in favor of Dunbarton in this particular. 
And it is clear as any historic fact the superior education of 
Dunbarton's children has been largely due to her religious insti- 
tutions and Christian teachers." 

That the town is also honored by her neighbors is shown by 
the following instances : Many years ago it was said that a 
Dartmouth student from an adjoining town, when asked from 
what town he came, answered : " From the town next to Dun- 
barton." Recently the chairman of the school board in Goffs- 
town, in his annual report, compared the town favorably to 
Dunbarton with regard to the number of college graduates. 

Very soon after the permanent settlement of the town, a 
committe was appointed to build a meeting-house at Dunbar- 
ton Center. It was finished previous to 1767, and stood in the 
middle of the common. Before that time it is related that 

3. From Dimibritlon, the ancient name given to a fort raised by the Brittons on 
the north bank of ihe Clyde in early times. - Editor. 


" Mr. McGregor preached in the open air, on the spot now con- 
secrated as the resting place of the dead." This first building 
was a low, frame structure, without pews, with seats of rough 
planks resting on chestnut logs, and a pulpit constructed of 
rough boards. It was replaced in about twenty years by the 
building now known as the Town House. This was used only 
for political purposes after the erection of the third church on 
the west side of the highway. 

About thirty years ago the interior of the old building was 
greatly changed, the upper part being made into a hall while 
the square pews were removed from the lower part, only the 
high pulpit remaining. A selectmen's room was finished in one 
corner, and in 1892, a room for the public library. The outside 
remains practically unchanged. 

The Rocky Hill Church at Amesbury, Mass., much like this 
at Dunbarton, is still used in summer only. There is no way of 
warming it, and people of the present day would not endure 
the hardships their ancestors bore without a murmur. The 
third church was built in 1836 on the site of a dwelling house 
owned by William Stark; in 1884 it was remodelled, the pews 
modernized and the ceiling frescoed. 

The vestry formerly stood on the opposite of the common 
and contained two rooms; prayer meetings were held in the 
lower room, while up stairs was the only hall in town. There 
were held the singing schools, and the lyceum of long ago ; also 
several fall terms of high schools ; among the teachers were 
Mark Bailey, VVilliam E. Bunten, and Henry M. Putney. More 
than twenty-five years ago the vestry was removed to its present 
location near the church and made more convenient and attractive. 

For about nineteen years the church had no settled pastor. 
In 1789 Walter Harris was called, and was ordained August 26. 
He preached more than forty years. Every man in town was re- 
quired to contribute to his support for a time until some of the 
other religious societies rebelled. The " History of Dunbarton " 
says : "Dr. Harris appropriated the proprietors' grant for the 


first settled minister, and located himself on the ministerial lot. 
He also, by a vote of the town, obtained the use of the parson- 
age lot, with an addition of seventy pounds a year, one-half to 
be paid in cash, the other in corn and rye." His farm was 
in a beautiful location ^outh of the center, and was afterwards 
owned for many years by the late Deacon John Paige ; it is 
now the propery of his son, Lewis Paige. 

In respect to his farm, buildings, fences, Dr. Harris was a 
model for the town. Two men once working for him were try- 
ing to move a heavy log. He told them how to manage accord- 
ing to philosophy ; finally one said : " Well, Dr. Harris, if you 
and your philosophy will take hold of that end of the log while 
Jim and I take this end, I think we can move it." 

Dr. Harris was sometimes called the " Broad axe and sledge- 
hammer of the New Hampshire ministry." He was a man of 
more than ordinary intellectual endowments, and graduated 
from Dartmouth College with high honors. Prof. Charles G. 
Burnham said in his address at the Centennial : " The influ- 
ence of the life and preaching of Dr. Harris is manifest today 
in every department of your material prosperity, as well as upon 
the moral and religious character of the people, and will be for 
generations to come." 

Dr. Harris was dismissed July 7, 1830, and died December 
25, 1843. His successor, Rev. John M. Putnam, was installed 
the day Dr. Harris was dismissed ; both were remarkable ex- 
temporaneous speakers. Mr. Putnam was called one of the 
best platform speakers in his profession in the State. 

At the close of his pastorate he went to reside with his son at 
Yarmouth, Maine ; he died in Elyria, Ohio, in 187 1. He was 
dismissed the day his successor, Sylvanus Hayward, was or- 
dained. Thus for more than 77 years the church was not for 
one day without a settled pastor. Mr. Hayward was born in 
Gilsum, N. H., and has written a history of his native town ; 
he was dismissed April, 1866. His successors were Revs. 
George I. Bard, William E. Spear, who is now a lawyer in 


Boston, and at present Secretary of the Spanish War Claim 
Commission, James Wells now deceased. Tilton C. H. Bou- 
ton, grandson of Rev. Dr. Nathanitl Bouton, for many years 
pastor of the North Church, Concord, N. H., George Sterling, 
Avery K. Gleason, and William A. Bushee. During Mr. 
Bouton's pastorate a parsonage was built in the north part of 
the village on land given by Deacon Daniel H. Barker. 

The first deacons were chosen in 1790, and were James 
Clement and Edward Russell. Others were Samuel Burnham, 
David Alexander, John Church, Matthew S. McCurdy, John 
Wilson, John Mills, Samuel Burnham (a namesake of the first 
of the name), who with Daniel H. Parker served for many 
years. They were succeeded by Frederic L. Ireland and 
Frank C. Woodbury, the present incumbents. 

Church discipline was very strict in ye olden time. What 
would the people of the present day think of being called to 
account for such a small matter as this? "A complaint was pre- 
sented to the church by one brother against another for un- 
Christian-like behavior in suffering himself 10 be carried in a 
light and vain manner upon a man's shoulders to the length of 
a quarter of a mile. The church accepted the complaint, and 
summoned the brother before it. He appeared, confessed his 
fault and was pardoned." 

Deacon McCurdy was noted for his strictness in keeping the 
Sabbath. No food could be cooked in the house on that 
day, and no work done at the barn except milking and feeding 
the stock. He once, however, mistook the day of the week, 
and took a grist to mill on Sunday, while his wife began the 
the Saturday's baking. On arriving at the mill, he, of course, 
found it closed, and on going to the miller's house, he learned 
his mistake. He was so shockeJ that he would not leave his 
grist, but carried it back home. 

The Baptist Church was organized in Mountalona in 1828. 
The first meeting house was built by Aaron Elliot, and Isaac 
Westcott was the first pastor. In the Spring of 1847 meetings 
were held at the Center; Rev. John W. Poland (since fa- 


mous as the maker of " White Pine Compound ") preached dur- 
ing that season. The nest year a church was built. 

The pastors were Revs. H. D. Hodges (who, with Rev. 
John Putnam, compiled a grammar), Samuel Cook, Horace 
Eaton, Jesse M. Coburn, Washington Coburn, John Peacock 
(as a supply), Stephen Pillsbury, Timothy B Eastman, Elias 
Whittemore, Samuel Woodbury, Adoniram J Hopkins, Dr. 
Lucien Hayden, J. J. Peck, Charles Willand, and the present in- 
cumbent, S. H. Buffam. This list may not be exactly correct. 
At intervals no services have been held. Nathaniel Wheeler, 
John O. Merriil and John Paige were deacons for many years. 
In 1899 the house was painted and otherwise improved. 

The old house at Mountalona was used at times by the Bap- 
tists. Methodist services were also held there. It was burned 
about seventeen years ago. 

A Universalist society was formed in 1830 by Nathan Gutter- 
son, Joshua F. Hoyt, Silas Burnham, Alexander Gilchrist 
and others and services were held in the old Congrega- 
tional Church. Rev. Nathan R. Wright preached here for four 
years and lived in a house near the late John C. Ray's which 
was burned about 30 years ago. It was afterwards known as the 
Hope house from Samuel B Hope, one of the owners. Mr. Wright 
was the father of Hon. Carroll D. Wright who was born in 1840. 
The family removed from town when he was three years of age. 

In 1864 or 1865 Episcopal Church services were held by 
clergymen from St. Paul's School in school houses in the west 
part of the town, afterwards in the Hope house. In the summer 
of 1866 the corner stone of the church was laid on land given by 
the Misses Stark. The money to build the church was collected 
by their grand neice, Miss Mary Stark, a devoted churchwornan, 
who died in 1881. The church is a lasting memorial of her. It 
is a beautiful building with a seating capacity of 110. The 
fine chancel window was giy/en by the father of the Rector of 
St. Paul's School. The church was consecrated in 1868, and 
named the Church of St John the Evangelist. For ab:>ut four- 
teen years the services were in charge of Rev. Joseph H. Coit, 


the present rector of St. Paul's School. He was succeeded by 
Rev. Edward M. Parker, a master of the school, who with the 
assistance of Mr. William VV. Flint, lay preacher, holds services 
in Dumbarton and Eist Weare. In 1890 the church was taken 
down and re-erected in North Dunbarton on land given by 
David Sargent south of the school-house, in front of a beautiful 
pine grove. A service of re dedication was held december 15, 
1890. Frank B. Mills was organist and leader of the singing 
with only a short interval until his removal from town in 1895. 
The organist at the present time is Miss Sara E. Perkins. 

After the removal of the church, a brass tablet in memory of 
the Misses Harriet and Charlotte Stark was placed therein by 
Rev. Joseph H. Coit. 

Dunbarton has had many fine musicians within her borders. 
Col. Samuel B. Hammond led the singing in the Congregational 
Church for a long term of years, resigning in 1875. The choir 
was formerly large and numbered among its members Mrs. 
Elizabeth (Whipple) Brown, her daughter, Mrs. Agnes French, 
0*ve Caldwell, now Mrs. Morrill of Minnesota, the daughters 
of the late Deacon Parker, Mrs. Harris Wilson, Nathaniel T. 
Safford, William S. Twiss, and others. 

Before the advent of the cabinet organ instrumental music 
was furnished by a double bass viol played by Harris Wilson, 
a single bass-viol played by Eben Kimball, a melodeon played 
by Andrew Twiss, and one or two violins. When the church 
was remodeled the organ and choir were removed from the gal- 
lery to a place beside the pulpit. Mrs. Mary (Wilson) Bunten 
is now organist. For several years a quartette, consisting 
of William S. Twiss, Frank B. Mills, Horace Caldwell, and 
Frederic L. Ireland sang most acceptably on many occasions, 
especially furnishing appropriate music at funerals, until the 
removal from town of Mr. Twiss in 18S4. At various times 
signing schools were taught by Eben Kimball, Joseph C. Cram 
of Deerfield, " Uncle Ben " Davis of Concord, and at Page's 
Corner, by Frank B. Mills. 

The first School houses in town were few and far between, 


with no free transportation as practiced at the present time. 
Hon. Albert S. Batchellor, of Littleton, in searching the col- 
umns of a file of old newspapers recently, came across the fol- 
lowing which will be of interest to Dumbarton people : 

" Dunbarton May ye 15, 1787. 
We the subscribers Promise to pay to Mrs. Sarah Ayers 
Young three shillings per week for five Months to Teach school 
seven or Eight Hours Each Day Except Sunday & Saturday 
half a day, to be paid in Butter at half Pifterreen per lb. flax 
the same or Rie at 4 shillings, Corn at 3s. Each. Persons to 
pay their Proportion to what scollers they sign for Witness Our 
Hands. Thomas Hannette 2 Scollers Thomas Husfe 1 Jame- 
son Calley 2 Andrew fofter 1 John Bunton 3 John Fulton 2 " 

Before 1805 Dumbarton had three school districts. The first 
house was at the Center. Rev. Abraham W. Burnham, of 
Rindge, in response to the toast, "Our Early Inhabitants," at 
the Centennial, said : " My brother Samuel, when so young 
that my mother was actually afraid the bears would catch him, 
walked two miles to school." This same boy was the first col- 
lege graduate from town, in the class of 1795. Robert Hogg, 
called Master Hogg, was the first male teacher, and Sarah 
Clement the first female teacher. 

Another teacher of the long ago was Master John Fulton, 
who lived on the farm now owned by John W. Farrar. In 
those days pupils often tried to secure a holiday by (t barring 
out " the teacher on New Year's Day. More than once 
Master John Fulton found himself in this situation. On one 
occasion he went to one of the neighbors where he borrowed a 
tall white hat and a long white coat with several capes. 
Thus disguised he mounted a white horse and rode rapidly to 
the school house. The unsuspecting pupils rushed to the 
door, when, quick as thought, Master Fulton sprang from the 
horse, entered the school house and called the school to order. 
At another time, while teaching in a private house in Bow, find- 
ing himself " barred out," he entered a chamber window by 
a ladder, removed some loose boards from the floor (the 
house being unfinished) and descended among his astonished 


pupils. Dr. Harris regularly visited the schools, and catechised 
the children ; he prepared many young men for college and 
directed the theological studies of those fitting for the ministry. 

Many clergymen of the town served on the school committee. 
Districts increased in number till there were eleven. In 1867 the 
town system was adopted, and the number of schools reduced 
to four or five. Notwithstanding the short terms, the long dis- 
tances, and lack of text-books (now provided by the town), Dun- 
barton has produced many fine scholars, and has provided 
a large number of teachers for her own and other schools. 

I think no family has furnished as many educated members 
as the Burnhams. A short time prior to 1775 Deacon Samuel 
Burnham came from Essex, Mass., to the south part of Dunbar- 
ton. Of his thirteen children, four sons graduated at Dartmouth 
College. In 1865 fourteen of his grand and great grand child- 
ren were college graduates. Not all of them lived in Dunbar- 
ton, but Samuel's son, Bradford, and most of his children lived 
here. Henry Larcom, son of Bradford, was a successful teach- 
er and land surveyor ; he represented the town in the Legisla- 
ture and was also State Senator. The last years of his life 
were passed in Manchester where he died in 1893. His son, 
Henry Eben, is a lawyer in Manchester, and was for a time 
Judge of Probate. He was born November 8, 1844, in the Dr. 
Harris house, and is an honored son of Dunbarton. He was 
elected United States Senator by the Legislature of 1901, for 
the term of six years and succeeded Senator William E. Chandler. 

Hannah, eldest daughter of Bradford Burnham, married 
Samuel Burnham from Essex, Mass ; she died in November, 
1901. Her two daughters were teachers for many years ; the 
younger, Annie M., taught in Illinois and Oregon until recently. 
Two sons were college graduates, Josiah, at Amherst iniS67; 
William H., at Harvard in 1882. The latter is instructor in 
Clark University, Worcester, and a writer and lecturer of great 
ability. A daughter of his brother, Samuel G. Burnham of 
St. Louis, graduated from Washington University with high 
honors, ranking second in a class of eighty-two. 


Three sons of Henry Putney were students at Dartmouth 
College, though the second son, Frank, did not graduate, 
leaving college to enter the army in 1861. 

Thirty or more of the sons of Dunbarton graduated at Dart- 
mouth College, while ten or twelve others took a partial course. 
John Gould, Jr., and Abel K. Wilson, died at college, Three 
graduated at Wabash College, Indiana, two at Union College, 
Schenectady, N. Y., and one each at Yale, Harvard, and Am- 
herst Colleges, and Brown University. It is said that at one 
time there were more students from Dunbarton in Dartmouth 
College than from any other town in the State. 

There have been several graduates from Normal Schools, 
Ralph Ireland and Ethel Jameson from the school at Bridge- 
water, Mass. The former is now teaching in Gloucester, Mass., 
and the latter in Boston, Mass. Ella and Leannette L. Mills 
(the latter the daughter of Leroy R. Mills), graduated from the 
school at Salem, Mass. Lydia Marshall, now holding a gov- 
ernment position in Washington, D. C, Mary Caldwell (now 
Mrs. Aaron C. Barnard), and Lizzie Bunten (now Mrs. James 
P. Tuttle, of Manchester), took a partial or whole course at the 
school at Plymouth, N. H. Louise Parker and Mary A. Stin- 
son graduated at Kimball Academy, Meriden, N. H. Many 
others have been students at McCollom Institute, Mount Ver- 
non, Pembroke, and other academies, and several have taken 
the course at the Concord High School. Among the teachers of 
the long ago may be named Antoinette Putnam, Lizzie and Ann 
Burnham, Jane Stinson, Nancy Stinson, Sarah and Marianne 
Parker, and Susan and Margaret Holmes. The list is too long 
for further mention. 

Among college graduates who made teaching their life work 
were William Parker, who died in Winchester, Illinois, in 1865 » 
Caleb Mills, who was connected with Wabash College, Indiana, 
from 1833 until his death in 1879. He was greatly interested 
in the cause of education, and was known as the father of pub- 
lic schools in Indiana ; Joseph Gibson Hoyt, who was called 
the most brilliant son Dunbarton ever educated ; he taught sev- 


eral years in Phillips Academy, Exeter, and was Chancellor of 
Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, taking charge Feb- 
ruary 4, 1859 ; inaugurated October 4, 1859 ; died November 26, 
1862 ; Charles G. Burnham, orator at the Centennial, in 1865, 
who died in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1866 ; Mark Bailey, who 
has taught elocution at Yale since 1855, besides spending some 
weeks of each year in former times at Dartmouth, Princeton, and 
other places. Samuel Burnham, the first graduate, should have 
been mentioned earlier. He was principal of tht academy at 
Derry for many years ; William E. Bunten taught in Atkinson, 
N. H., Marblehead, Mass., and in New York, where he died in 
1897 ; Matthew S. McCurdy, grandson and namesake of Dea- 
con McCurdy, is instructor at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. 
Although not a college student, John, brother of Thomas and 
James F. Mills, spent many years in teaching in Ohio and West 
Virginia; he died in 1879. Among those who have been both 
teachers and journalists are Amos Hadley of Concord, Henry 
M. Putney, now on the editorial staff of the Manchester Daily 
and Weekly Mirror \ William A. (brother of Henry M.) who 
died some years ago in Fairmount, Nebraska ; and John B. 
Mills, now at Grand Rapids, Michigan. George H. Twiss, of 
Columbus, Ohio, has been a teacher, superintendent of schools, 
and proprietor of a bookstore. 

Of the native clergymen, Leonard S. Parker is probably the 
oldest now living. He has held several pastorates, and is now 
assistant pastor of the Shepard Memorial Church, Cambridge, 
Mass. One of the early college graduates was Isaac Garvin, 
son of Sam Garvin, whose name was a by word among his 
neighbors ; " as shiftless as Sam Garvin " was a common say- 
ing. Isaac obtained his education under difficulties which 
would have discouraged most men, and at first even Dr. Harris 
thinking it not worth wihle to help him. He probably studied 
divinity with Dr. Harris, and was ordained in the Congrega- 
tional Church, but late in life took orders in the Episcopal 
Church in New York. There were two Rev. Abraham Burn- 
hams, uncle and nephew, and Rev. Amos W. Burnham, whose 


only pastorate was Rindge where he preached forty-six years. 
Thomas Jameson held pastorates in Scarborough and Gorham, 
Maine ; he was blind during his last years. Charles H. Mar- 
shall preached in various places in Indiana, and died nearly thir- 
ty years ago. Ephraim O. Jameson held several pastorates ; he 
is now retired and living in Boston. He has compiled several 
genealogies and town histories. Rev. George A. Putnam, son 
of the second pastor of the church in Dunbarton, preached for 
several years in Yarmouth, Maine, then went to Milibury, Mass., 
in 187 1, where he ^ t ill resides — an unusually long pastorate 
in these times. John P. Mills is preaching in Michigan. 

Of the native Baptist ministers were Hosea Wheeler, Harri- 
son C. Page, who died at Newton Theological Seminary just 
before the completion of his course, and who gave promise of 
great ability; and the brothers Joel and Christie Wheeler who 
entered the ministry without a collegiate education, and both 
preached in Illinois. 

Though the people of Dunbarton are too peaceable and hon- 
est to need the services of a lawyer, at least a dozen young men 
entered the legal profession. One of the earliest college 
graduates, Jeremiah Stinson, having studied law, opened an 
office in his native town, but devoted the most of his time to 
agriculture. He met with an accidental death at the age of 
thirty-six year?. Among those who continued to practice law 
were John Burnham in Hillsborough, John Jameson in Maine, 
John Tenney in Methuen, Mass., Judge Joseph M. Cavis in 
California, David B. Kimball in Salem, Mass., Newton H. Wil- 
son in Duluth, Minn., and Henry £. Burnham in Manchester. 
Only the three last named are now living. 

The people of Dunbarton are proud of the fact that there 
has been no resident physician in town for more than forty 
years. The last, a Dr. Gilson, was here for a short time only. 
Dr. Dugall was probably the first ; while others were Doctors 
Symnes Sawyer, Clement, Mighill, Stearns, and Merrill. 

True Morse was a seventh son ; so was Rev. Mr. Putnam, 
but he refused to use his supposed powers, Among the native 


physicians were Abram B. Story, who died not long since in 
Manchester, William Ryder, John L. Colby, Gilman Leach, 
David P. Goodhue, a surgeon in the Navy, John and Charles 
Mills. The two last named practiced in Champaign, Illinois, 
and were living there when last heard from. William Caldwell 
is well remembered as a veterinary surgeon. 

Of dentists we may name John B. Prescott, D. D. S., of 
Manchester, a graduate of Pennsylvania Dental College, and 
the late Dr. Edward Ryder of Portsmouth. 

Notwithstanding this exodus of professional men and others, 
many good and wise men made the place their home. Deacon 
John Mills was town treasurer for thirty five years, selectman 
twenty-two years, and representative eight years. He built the 
house afterwards owned by his son-in law, Deacon Daniel H. 
Parker, who was also a good citizen ; as Justice of the Peace, 
he transacted much law business and settled many estates ; he 
held many town offices, was a thrifty farmer, and accumulated a 
large fortune. 

Henry Putney, of the fourth generation from the first settler 
of that name, was another strong man, who with Deacon Par- 
ker and Eliphalet Sargent formed a board of selectmen in the 
troubled limes of the Civil War, that did good service for the 
town. His only daughter is the wife of Nahum J. Bachelder, 
secretary of State Board of Agriculture. He had six sons, five 
of whom are now living. 

The name of Oliver Bailey has been known in town for several 
generations. The present representative of that name is one 
of the elder men of the town, a thrifty farmer, and was formerly 
in company with his son, George O. Bailey, a cattle dealer on a 
large scale. His brother, James M. Bailey, still owns part of 
the paternal acres. Their father, Oliver Bailey, removed late 
in life; to Bow Mills, where he died in 1889. John C. Ray 
owned a beautiful home in the west part of the town ; he was 
superintendent of th2 State Industrial School in Manchester 
for about twenty-five years before his death in 189S. 
The brothers, Captain Charles and William C. Stinson, were 


wealthy farmers in the south part of the town ; the former re- 
moved to Goffstown, and his farm is owned by Philander Lord. 
The house is probably one of the oldest in town. The last 
years of William C. Stinson were spent in Manchester., Harris 
E. Ryder was the first Master of Stark Grange which was or- 
ganized in October, 1874. His buildings were burned in 1875, 
and not long afterwards he located in Bedford, where he died. 
His brother, Charles G. B. Ryder, served on the school com- 
mittee for several years. He removed to Manchester many 
years ago and was engaged in the real estate business for many 
years ; he died there several years ago. The buildings on his 
farm were burned in July, 1899. 

Major Caleb, son of General John Stark, built a house in 
the west part of the town which is still owned by the family 
and is filled with interesting relics. His son, Caleb, was the 
author of the " History of Dunbarton," published in i860. He 
and two unmarried sisters spent much time here, the last survi- 
vor, Miss Charlotte, dying in 1889, aged about ninety years. 
She was a fine specimen of the old time gentlewoman, much 
given to hospitality. The place is now owned in part by her 
grand nephew, Charles F. M. Stark, a descendant on the 
mother's side from Robert Morris, the great financier of Revo- 
lutionary times. His only son, John McNiel Stark, graduated 
from Holderness School, June, 1900. The Stark cemetery is a 
beautiful and well kept resting place of the dead. Besides 
Stark, the names of Winslow, Newell, and McKinstry are seen 
on the headstones. Benjamin Marshall, and his son, Enoch, 
were prominent men in town. Many other names should be 
mentioned, but space forbids. 

The daughters of Dunbarton are not less worthy of mention 
than her sons. Some of the teachers have already been men- 
tioned. Another was Marianne, sister of Deacon Parker, who 
married a Doctor Dascomb and went with him to Oberlin, Ohio, 
where he became professor of chemistry in Oberlin College. 
She was lady principal. It was said that there were two saints 
in the Oberlin calendar, President Finney and Mrs. Dascomb. 


Three of her sisters married ministers. Ann married Rev. 
Isaac Bird, and went with him to Turkey as a missionary ; and 
Emily married Rev. James Kimball of Oakham, Mass. ; and 
Martha, Rev. Thomas Tenney ; one of her daughters is the wife 
of the late Rev. Cyrus Hamlin. Two of Deacon Parker's 
daughters are the wives of ministers. Louise is Mrs. Lucien H. 
Frary of Pomona, California, and Abby is Mrs. John L. R. 
Trask of Springfield, Mass. Dr. Trask has been for many 
years trustee of Mt. Holyoke College. 

Mary, daughter of Deacon John Mills, married Rev. Mr. 
William Patrick of Boscawen ; Dr. Mary Mills Patrick, President 
of the American College for Girl sat Constantinople, is her step- 
daughter and namesake. Sarah, daughter of Benjamin Mar- 
shall, married Caleb Mills who studied theology, though his 
life work was teaching. Mary F., daughter of Deacon John 
Paige, married Rev. David Webster, now of Lebanon, Maine. 
Mary L., daughter of John Kimball of Milford, formerly of Dun- 
barton, has been for more than ten years the wife of Rev. Arthur 
Remington, now in Philadelphia. Perhaps the latest addition 
to the list is Hannah C-, eldest daughter of Horace Caldwell, 
who, January, 1899, married Rev. Avery A. K. Gleason, then 
pastor of the Congregational Church in Dunbarton, now Rayn- 
ham, Mass. 

Mary A. daughter of Captain Charles Stinson, married 
Charles A. Pillsbury, known as the flour king of Minneapolis; 
who died more than a year ago. 

Though the rough and rocky soil is poorly adapted to culti- 
vation, Dunbarton is, and always has been, emphatically a 
farming town. Yet a long list of mechanics might be given. 
Carpenters, blacksmiths, painters and masons still ply their 
trades, but the mill wrights, shoemakers, tanners, coopers, tail- 
ors, tailoresses, and pump makers are people of the past. Less 
than fifty years ago a tannery was in operation at the place 
owned by Benjamin Fitts, and a good sized pond covered the 
space opposite the house of Justus Lord. It was used on sev- 
eral occasions by the Baptists as a place of immersion. 


William Tenney was the carpenter who built the town hall ; 
Captain Samuel Kimball, the present Congregational Church, 
and many dwelling-houses. Others were the work of John 
Leach. The man now living who has done more of this work 
than any other is John D. Bunten, whose work has always been 
done in a thorough manner. 

The stone blacksmith shop of Jonathan Waite has been used 
by three generations, now only for the family work. John B. 
Ireland still uses the shop of his father, while Lauren P. Had- 
ley's specialty is iron work on wagons. During the past few 
years much timber has been removed by the aid of portable 
steam mills. 

The first store in town was kept by Major Caleb Stark at 
Page's Corner. He had several successors, among them being 
Jeremiah Page and John Kimball. At the Center I find, in the 
" History of Dunbarton/' a long list of store-keepers, among 
whom was David Tenney, one of whose ledgers is still pre- 
served, where the entries of New England rum sold to the most 
respectable citizens are as numerous as tea and coffee now- 

Deacon Burnham kept the store for many years, and later 
Thomas Wilson and his son Oliver kept the store. The latter 
also did considerable business as a photographer for a time. 
His son in-law, John Bunten, is the present proprietor of the 
store. The business has increased greatly with the sending out 
of teams to take orders and deliver goods in various parts of the 

Among the successful business men who have left town may 
be named Lyman W. Colby, who was a successful photographer 
in Manchester for more than thirty years, and whose recent 
sudden death is greatly to be deplored by his many friends ; John 
C. Stinson, a merchant of Gloucester, N. J. ; Samuel G. Burn- 
ham of St. Louis, Missouri : and the late Fred D. Sargent, 
owner of a restaurant in St. Paul, Minn., where he furnished meals 
to 500 people daily, and to many more on extra occasions. He 
had also a branch establishment at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, of 


which his brother, Frank H. Sargent is manager. For several 
years a newspaper was published by Oscar H. A. Chamberlen, 
called The Snow-Flake, afterwards The Analecta. 

The first library in town was kept at the house of Benjamin 
Whipple, and was called the Dunbarton Social Library. Some 
of the books are still preserved. A parish library, containing 
many valuable works, was collected by Miss Mary Stark, and 
was for many years the source of pleasure and profit to the 
attendants at St. John's Church. Some years after her death 
the books were given to a Library Association, formed at the 
Center, which in turn was merged with the Public Library, 
founded in 1892, of which Miss Hannah K. Caldwell was, till 
her marriage, the efficient librarian. The position is now rilled 
by Mabel Kelly. A library is also owned by Stark Grange. 

For the past thirty years or more, many summer boarders 
have come to Dunbarton. The houses of James M. Bailey, 
William B. Burnham, and Peter Butterfield, were well filled for 
several years, while at many other places some people were 
accommodated. At the present time two houses at the Center, 
owned by Henry P. Kelly, are filled every summer ; also the 
house of Frank C. Woodbury, the former home of Deacon Par- 
ker on the " hill beautiful," where "glorious golden summers 
wax and wane, where radiant autumns all their splendors shed." 

The pure air of Dunbarton seems to be conducive to long 
life. Two citizens passed the century mark. Mrs. Joseph 
Leach died in 1849, aged 102 years, 9 monlhs. Mrs. Achsah 
P. (Tenney) Whipplelived to the age of 100 years, 9 months. 
Her centennial birthday was celebrated June 28, 1886, by a 
large gathering of relatives and friends. Her only daughter 
married Joseph A Gilmore, for many years Superintendent of 
the Concord Railroad, and also Governor of New Hampshire. 
Her grand daughter was the first wife of Hon. William E. Chan- 
dler, who, doubtless, has pleasant recollections of his visits to 
his betrothed at the home of her grandparents. 

Among the residents of the town who attained the age of 
90 years or more were Mrs. Mary Story, 98 years, 4 months, 12 


days ; Mrs. Ann C, widow of Deacon John Wilson, 98 years ; 
Deacon John Church, 97 years; Mrs. Abigail (Burnham) Ire- 
land, 94 years ; There were several others whose ages I do not 
know. Mr. and Mrs. Guild, near the Bow line, I think were 
over 90 years. Many have passed the age of 80 years. Dea- 
con Samuel Burnham is now 88 years ; he and his wife lived 
together moie than 63 years. Mr. and Mrs. James Stone lived 
together more than 65 years. Mrs. Stone survived her husband 
only a few weeks. Colonel Samuel B. Hammond and wife cel- 
ebrated their golden wedding in 1892. 

Stark Grange is the only secret society in town, though some 
individuals belong to societies in adjoining towns. The mem- 
bership of Stark Grange is about ninety. 

The patriotism of the town has always been unquestioned. 

Dumbarton has sent her sons to battle for the right in every 
war. Seventeen men took part in the French and Indian War, 
including Major Robert Rogers, and other men by the names 
of Rogers, Stark. McCurdy. and others. 

In the Revolutionary Army were fifty seven from Dunbarton, 
including the brothers John and Thomas Mills, William Beard, 
and others. Caleb Stark, afterwards a resident, though very 
youug, was with his father at Bunker Hill. 

Henry L. Burnham used to tell a story of a cave on the 
farm which was his home for many years (now owned by John 
Haynes) which once sheltered a deserter from the Revolution- 
ary Army. The man afterwards went to the northern part of 
the State, and at the very hour of his death, during a heavy 
thunder shower, the entrance to the cave was closed so com- 
pletely that the most diligent search has failed to discover any 
trace of it. 

In the war of 181 2, eleven enlisted, and twelve were drafted. 
Probably Benjamin Bailey was the last survivor. Among those 
who went to the Mexican War were Benjamin Whipple and 
Charles G. Clement. 

Dunbarton sent more than fifty men to the Civil War ; sev- 
eral sent substitutes. To three men were given captain's com- 


missions, namely, William E. Bunten, Henry M. Caldwell, who 
died of fever in Falmouth, Va., in 1862, and Andrew J. Stone, 
who was killed at the Battle of the Wilderness in 1864. Mar- 
cus M. Holmes returned a lieutenant and Horace Caldwell was 
orderly sargeant ; Wilbur F. Brown died of starvation at Ander- 
sonville, and Benjamin Twiss narrowly escaped a like fate at 
Libby Prison. He was suffocated in a mine in the Far West not 
very long ago. 

Two young men went to the Spanish-American War who 
were born in Dunbarton, and had lived here the larger part of 
their lives, namely, William J. Sawyer, who enlisted in the New 
Hampshire Regiment from Concord, and Fred H. Mills, who 
enlisted at Marlboro, Mass., in the Sixth Massachusetts Regi- 
ment, He died in Goffstown, June 26, 1900, of disease con- 
tracted in the army. 

No railroad touches the town, and probably never will, but 
an electric car route over the hill has been prophesied. 

The mail has always come by way of Concord, and the car- 
rier's wagon has furnished transportation for many people. 
Hon William E. Chandler drove the mail wagon for a time some 
fifty years ago. The postoffice was first established in 181 7, 
at the Center; another at North Dunbarton in 1834 j a third 
at East Dunbarton in 1883. In 1899 the free rural delivery 
system was adopted, giving general satisfaction to the residents. 

I have written chiefly of the past history of the town, but I 
think I may say that the people of the presentday are endeavor- 
ing to maintain as good a reputation as their ancestors. 

Asiatic Cholera in Manchester, 1849-54. 

CHESTER UNION," JULY 12, 1884.) 

The first visitation made by the Asiatic cholera to this city was in 
1849. The disease broke out in New Orleans in December, 1848, 
continuing through the entire winter, and extending throughout 
the greater part of the country the following year. The first 
cases in Manchester occurred about the middle of July, but 
owing to the lack of official records it is exceedingly difficult 
to secure details of the ravages of the epidemic. Hon. Jacob 
F. James was mayor, and the late Dr. John S. Elliot was city 
physician. To the best of Mr. James's recollection, the mother 
of James S. Cheney, the expressman, was among the earliest if 
not the first victim. She resided on Lowell street, between 
Birch and Chestnut streets. There were in all 25 or 30 deaths 
that summer, and among them some very touching cases. A 
family living on Manchester street consisted of a man and wife 
and three children. The husband was taken sick at breakfast 
time, dying within an hour or two, and before noon the wife lay 
beside him, a corpse. Only one of the children, a girl, was old 
enough to realize their loss, and her pleadings to see her papa 
and mamma once more were most pitiful. The mayor exerted 
himself in their behalf, and they were all three placed in good 
homes with relatives out of the city. 

In a house near the one owned by the widow Wallace on 
Central street, an Irish woman died. The mayor went to Am- 
herst that morning, having left directions for the immediate in- 
terment of the corpse. On his return later in the day he found 


the corpse still unburied, and in the street about the premises 
were gathered hundreds of her fellow countrymen, determined 
that the funeral should not take place until the corpse had been 
shrived by a priest. The mayor at once took the matter inc harge. 
Entrance was made through the crowd into the house, and the 
coffin containing the body was being borne out by Major Ing- 
ham, then a police officer, and another officer named Knowlton, 
when a number of women threw themselves upon it forcing the 
bearers to drop their burden. It fell to the floor with a crash, 
emitting such a stench that it drove nearly every one from the 
house. The funeral then proceeded without interruption, though 
nearly a thousand people followed the corpse to the burial 

Another case occurred in the rear of Manchester street, and 
after death the friends of the victim proceeded to u wake " the 
corpse in the good old-fashioned way. Daniel L. Stevens, then 
city marshal, went to the house and was actually compelled to 
drive the " wakers " out of the room by force in order to get to 
the corpse and have it buried. 

On a Saturday evening a man living at the corner of Elm and 
Manchester streets, where the Straw block now stands, came 
into the market kept by Dustin Marshall, on the opposite cor- 
ner, under what is now the Merchants National Bank, and pur- 
chased meat for his Sunday dinner. Before Sunday night the 
man and his wife both lay dead in the same room. Dr. Thomas 
Brown attended these cases, and here contracted the disease 
which was soon to end his own life. During the month of 
August a number of cholera patients were sent to the city farm 
or poor house, which then as now was also the house of correc- 
tion. Between Saturday and Sunday, about the middle of the 
month, a number of deaths occurred at the institution, and 
about three o'clock Monday morning, Mayor James was awak- 
ened by a patrolman, who told him that Rundlett, the keeper, 
his wife, and Young, the assistant, had all run away, leaving the 
patients and criminals to take care of themselves. Mr. James 
arose and went in search of Dr. Elliot, whom he found sick 


and unable to go out, so he went alone to the poor farm, which 
he found in a horribly filthy condition, both indoors and out. 
All the day long the mayor labored to straighen out matters, 
and it was not until nine o'clock in the evening that he felt 
able to come away, leaving one of the prisoners in charge. He 
subsequently sent a man by the name of Sherburne to have the 
charge of the house, and requested Dr. D. F. Stark to attend 
to the patients. The Doctor sent word to the mayor to send him 
some Otard brandy, and two gallons were sent up. Under the 
Doctor's care the patients began to mend, and no more deaths 
occurred there during the epidemic. The fugitive keeper sub- 
sequently returned to the city, and after a rather bitter debate 
he was reinstated by the officials in charge. 

The most wide spread consternation was caused by the death 
of Dr. Thomas Brown, a very popular physician. He was 
stoutly-built, of medium height, quite bald, the picture of rug- 
ged health, tipping the scales at 200 pounds. As stated before 
the Doctor attended the cases occurring at the corner of Elm 
and Manchester streets on a Sunday. The day was intensely 
hot, and Dr. Brown was accompanied by Dr. Thomas Wheat, 
now practising here. The odor of the room was very bad, and 
Dr. Brown went to an open window, and wiping the sweat from 
his brow he remarked, " This is the devil, ain't it ? " an expres- 
sion quite common with him when a little excited. The following 
Tuesday or Wednesday he was attacked by the disease and 
died before noon. The evening previous to his death the Doc- 
tor passed Daniel L. Stevens, who was sitting on the steps of 
his steam mill, on the site now occupied by David B. Varney's 
foundry. " How are you, Doctor ? " queried Mr. Stevens, and 
receiving in reply the laconic expression, " Perfect," a common 
word with the Doctor. The next morning, about eight o'clock, 
Mayor James met him on Concord Square, and was greeted 
with, "Good morning, Mr. Mayor," from the Doctor, who 
immediately added, " For the first time in my life I am alarmed." 
The mayor looked at the Doctor, and saw plainly signs of the 
fatal scourge, mainly in the glazed appearance of his eyes 


which he described as much like the glare of a dead person. 
He told the Doctor to go into the house at once and he would 
send a physician. The Doctor lived near the common, and Drs. 
Gregg and Wheat went to him, but the disease had already 
done its fatal work, and he died in fearful agony about eleven 
o'clock in the forenoon. During his hours of suffering his 
shrieks could be heard away across the Square. The death of 
Dr. Brown caused more fright than anything that had preceded 
it, and a feeling of utter despair crept over the community. 
The afternoon following his death the streets of the city were 
deserted, and old residents say that from one end of Elm street 
to the other not a living person was to be seen. The epidemic 
spent its force in August, and with the advent of fall had 
entirely disappeared. 

The second epidemic made its appearance in Manchester 
in 1854, as before breaking out in the south several months 
previous. As in the epidemic of 1849, no published data of 
any extent is attainable, the city officials, mill management and 
press combining to keep the matter quiet for fear of interrupt- 
ing business and keeping operative help from coming to the 
city. But the scars left by the first visit had hardly healed , 
and the fears occasioned by it were still fresh in the memory of 
the people, and so upon the re appearance of the disease the 
excitement approached very nearly to a panic. No report of a 
physician appears in the city report of 1854, and but few 
deaths are recorded in the papers of that year, but the number 
is variously estimated from one score to four score, the latter esti- 
mate by a gentleman who was Noble Grand of an Odd-Fellows 
lodge at the time and an overseer on the Stark corporation, so 
that his opportunities for obtaining facts were exceptionally 
good. Yet in view of all the facts obtainable it does not appear as 
if the mortality was as great as in 1849. Among others others 
there died, August 20, Elizabeth Duby, who worked for George 
C. Gilmore on the Stark corporation. She left the mill Satur- 
day afternoon at the close of work, apparently as well as ever. 
Sunday night the poor gill was borne to her last resting place 


in the Valley cemetery. Another case was that of Thomas M 
Carr, who died the same month, the 30th of August. So wide, 
spread was the fear of contagion that it was almost impossible 
to procure any one to care for the sick. A Mr. Gardner was 
employed to nurse Mr. Carr at $10 a night, but he was taken 
sick and died, after which, although $20 a night was offered, no 
help could be hired, and the brotherhood of Odd-Fellows had 
to care for the stricken one, four of them, Charles C. Keniston, 
Abel M. Keniston, James M. Howe, and George C. Gilmore, 
taking turns, two at a time, until Mr. Carr died. All four of 
the watchers escaped the disease. 

Several deaths occurred on Concord street, nearly opposite 
Vine street, among them a Mr. Fitts, or Fitz, residing in the 
" yellow block " ; also a Mrs. Brown ; close by lived Mrs. 
Richard Smith, the mother of Mrs. Gilman B. Fogg. Mrs. 
Smith was stricken down and with her aged mother fell victim 
to the disease. Mrs. George C. Batchelder, wife of the veteran 
hackman, nursed Mrs. Smith through her illness. Quite a 
number of deaths occurred in the same locality and also in the 
vicinity of Manchester street, and at the south end. 

During the prevalence of both epidemics many fatal cases 
were marked by peculiar characteristics. Dysentery would first 
set in, without perceptibly weakening the subject ; then the col- 
lapse would come like a stroke of lightning and in a few hours 
death ensued. Decomposition seemed to set in even before life 
was extinct, the flesh turned purple, emitting offensive odors, 
and mortification followed immediately after death, necessitat- 
ing hasty burial. Many of the dead were buried at night, in the 
north east corner of the Valley cemetery, and now lie fully 
twenty feet below the surface, by reason of the filling up to 

Both in 1849 anc * J 854 the violence of the epidemic was ex- 
pended on that part of the city lying between Elm back street 
and Chestnut street, isolated cases only occurring outside of 
those limits. 


Rock Rimmon. 


It is not known when the conspicuous rock, near the city of 
Manchester, rising from the high plateau, west of the Merri- 
mack river, was named, nor by whom the name was conferred. 
It is, however, quite certain that it has been generally known as 
Rock Rimmon for. not less than seventy years, and very prob- 
able for a much longer time. As is not unusual, this name has 
been more or less corrupted, and has sometimes taken the form 
of li Rock Raymond/' commonly pronounced " Rock Raymon." 
One of the earlier charts of the city gives the name as Ray 
mond. Careful inquiry reveals no evidence that this latte 
name was correctly given, and it was so written without author- 
ity by the engineer in charge, in ignorance of the real name or 
a concession to a mispronunciation and orthography then 
somewhat common. 

The writer has taken pains to interview some of the more 
scholarly and intelligent among our older citizens, with the re- 
sult of an entire agreement as to the correctness of the form 
first given, as well as concerning the undoubtedly Old Testa- 
ment origin of the name. In order to show the probability and 
practical certainty of its scriptural origin and application, we 
append such references as the Old Testament records afford. 

We find, first, the name of one Rimmon, who was known as 
" Rimmon the Beerothite " (II Samuel iv, 5, 8). He had two 
sons, Rechab and Baanah, who are described as a pair of 
bloodthirsty scoundrels and assassins, of a type quite common 
in their day and generation. In the absence of direct evidence 
it is quite conceivable that this " Beerothite " was the first 
settler who preempted that particular claim and bestowed his 
name upon that locality. 

We again find Rimmon under the form of " Ramon, '' mean- 
ing exalted, as an ancient idol, by which was represented the 
sun, or sun-worship, at Damascus. 

We find further that at a later date the city of Rimmon first 


belonged to the Levites and was known as one of the cities of 
the priests ; that it was afterwards reckoned as one of the cities 
of Judah, and that it was finally given to Simeon. At that time 
it is described as " Rimmon with her suburbs" (I Chronicles vi, 
77) ; also as one of " the twenty-nine cities of Judah with their 
villages " (Joshua xv, 32). In Simeon's day it was spelled 
" Remmon." From these references we must conclude it was a 
place of considerable importance. 

En Rimmon, a city near Jerusalem, is referred to in Nehemiah 
xi, 29. Um er-Rummanim, meaning mother of pomegranates, is by 
biblical students identified as the same place, and is described 
as a village in ruins fifteen miles southeast of Hebron. Between 
two hills, both covered presumably with ancient ruins, and a 
mile south of the village, is a large fountain, the chief watering- 
place in that region. The word Rimmon means pamegrdn&ie. 

Rimmon parez, meaning pomegranate of the breach, was one of 
the camping places of the Israelites, during the exodus, where 
they pitched their tents (Numbers xxxiii, 19, 20). Parez means 
a breach in a wall or cliff. 

" The Rock of Rimmon " and " Rock Rimmon " are spoken 
of in Judges xx, 45, 47, and xxi, 13. 

Finally, we find the scriptural Rock Rimmon to have been a 
high rock or hill ten miles north of Jerusalem, and four miles 
east of Bethel, on which there is now a modern village. After a 
loss of more than twenty five thousand fighting men, in a series 
of sanguinary battles in the great Jewish civil war, eighteen thou- 
sand men having fallen in one engagement, the remnant of the 
tribe of Benjamin, six hundred in number, held this Rock for 
four months against their enemies. The Rock appears to have 
constituted a natural fortress of great strength, as the warriors 
of Benjamin are several times spoken of as M in the Rock." 

After the foregoing Old Testament record, and especially in 
view of the distinct and remarkable appropriateness of transfer- 
ring the scriptural name of Rock Rimmon to our Merrimack 
valley rock or cliff, there appears no reasonable doubt as to its 
original appellation, and that it was and is and should remain 
Rock Rimmon, nothing appearing to the contrary. 

Narrative of James Johnson 




Captain James Johnson was among the earlier settlers of Grant 
No. 4, now Charlestown, N. H., and came here from Massachu- 
setts with others to help defend a post that was so favorably 
situated to guard one of the most common routes of the Indians 
on their way to and from Canada. The fort here was built by 
Massachusetts and was supposed to be in that province. On the 
morning of August 29, 1754, he and his family, consisting of 
his wife, three children and sister-in-law Miriam Willard, were 
surprised by the Indians, and with two men named Peter Lara- 
bee and Ebenezer Farnsworth, were carried off captives. The 
long journey proved extremely trying, the party at times suffer- 
ing for food. On the second day Mrs. Johnson gave birth to a 
child, a daughter christened Captive, from the conditions sur- 
rounding her birth. The captors appear to have been very 
solicitous of the welfare of their captives, and upon reaching 
Montreal, Johnson was given a parole of two months to enable 
him to return and solicit aid to redeem himself and the others. 
Appealing to the assembly of New Hampshire, he obtained, 
after a vexatious delay, one hundred and fifty pounds sterling. 
But the season had been well advanced before he had returned, 
and it was then winter, and he was unable to get back to 
Montreal before another spring. This gave his captors 
grounds to claim that he had broken his parole, and after being 
robbed of considerable of his money he was seized and thrown 


into prison, together with his wife, four children, and her sister. 
Remaining a year and a half in prison, Mrs. Johnson, two of 
her daughters, and her sister were sent to England, from whence 
they eventually reached Boston. Captain Johnson was kept in 
prison three years, when he was allowed to go to Boston, ac- 
companied by his son. The other child, his eldest daughter, 
had been innured in a nunnery just out of Montreal, and he 
was unable to effect her release. He and his son fortunately 
reached Boston in season to meet the fugitives from England, 
and after having passed through a series of hardships, suf- 
ferings and misfortunes peculiar to pioneer life, the distressed 
family were reunited, with the exception of the daughter 
mentioned, who never rejoined her kindred. Still Captain 
Johnson's misfortunes were not entirely over, for he was soon 
atrested and thrown into prison charged with being in the em- 
ploy of the French. Happily he soon disproved this charge, 
and there is nothing to show that he experienced any further 

This account of personal adventures is valuable mainly for 
the information it contains regarding the distances, physical 
features of the country, and the association of the French and 


The Committee who was directed to examine James Johnson, 
a Late Captain in Canada, beg leave to Report that he gives 
ye following account of facts (viz.) that it is a hundred miles 
from No. 4 to Crown Point that in his Journey to Canada 2 he 

1. November 14, 1757. 

2. This was the most common route of the Indians in their passages to the val- 
ley of the Connecticut below what was known as " Moose Meadows," now includ- 
ed in Haverhill and Piermont. These highways of travel for the Indians always 
followed the most convenient waterways, and after following a stream to its foun- 
tain-head, if their course led as far, they loaded their burdens on their backs, in- 
cluding their canoes, and so crossed the country to the nearest river or pond lying 
in their course, In 1759, New Hampshire cut a road from the junction of Black 
River with the Connecticut at No. 4, across what is now the State of Vermont 
to the headwaters of Lake Champlain in order to open an easier route to Canada. 
This followed very closely the old Indian trail from Pocumtuck valley to Montreal. 

Another trail of the red men was up the Connecticut River to Weld's, now 


passed a River Called black River ye first night that he 
Crossed White River Several times and for want of a canooe he 
travel'd by otter Creek that in General the travelling was good 
that he could not tell how high the Emminence of Crown Point 
was but that the Citadle is the opposite side & before ( . ) ye 
breastwork was Raised Shot would strike ye Door of ye Citadel 
from ye Emminence & the wall of the fort is twelve feet 
high & twelve feet thick & then abreast work about Two foot 
thickness — (the) heights & ye Cannon are planted nearly 
alike Round the fort Excepting on part of ye north Square 
where ye barracks are (&) that there is no out works (&) that 
he apprehends the Citadel is not tenable against proper batter- 
ing pieces and that the place of unloading their vessell from 
the fort is about Sixty Rod & the Emminence is a hundred Rod 
from ye place of unloading & before ye vessell Can be Covered 
by ye fort She must be Exposed to a fire from ye Emminence 
& that ye powder house Stores exposed to ye Emminence that 
there is no no well in ye fort that ye Store house is next to 
the Emminence that there is but one outer Gate & that has a 
Drawbridge before it & a Gate within that, which may be drawn 
up (&) drop'd down as occasion Requires that there is no 
( ? , 3 in ye fort & but one vessel in ye lake 4 which is about 70 
tons without guns & that from Crown Point he went to S Johns 
Fort at the other end of ye Lake and from there to Cham- 
plain River 5 & that from S Johns Fort to S l Francis is 
about fifty miles near north & from S Francis to S Lawrence 

Wells River, thence up that stream to its source in the Green Mountains, and 
through a gap in the highlands to the headwaters of the French now Lamoile 
River, after which a comparatively easy way was found to their destination. A 
third route, more broken than either ol the others, was taken usually by the In- 
dians visiting the Merrimack vallcv as f r south as Dunstable. This followed 
the Merrimack and Pemegiwassett and Raker's Rivers to the dividing ridge be- 
tween the valleys. Thence by a " carrying-place," and small stream to the Con- 
necticut, up that river to where is now the town of Dalton, thence striking across 
the western and northern country by small streams and lakes to the head of Lake 
Mcmphreniagog, and down that body of water and outlet to the St. Francis River. 
Did they wish to keep on to Quebec the course was then down the St. Lawrence. 

3. Tiiis word is written so poorly as not to be deciphered with any certainty. 

4. Lake Champlain was called by the early French writers Mer ties Iroquois, 
and Lams Jrocoisionsis. — Jesuit Relations. Winthrop, in 1600, referred to it as 
LnkeJIiraeoies. — Winsor, Vol. IV p. 391. 

5. Richelieu River. 

G. So named by Jacques Cartier, in 1.W5, but frequently called by early writers 


is about five miles & that ye Rout between S Johns and 
S Francis there are two K.ows of houses one on each side ye 
River 7 in the whole about two hundred in some places pretty 
thick & a fort at Chamblain as Strong as Crown Point & that the 
whole village of S Francis Stands on an rise of Ground Moun- 
tains near fourty buildings of all Sorts that there is no fort in 
it but some stone houses and buildings no considerable Settle- 
ments within fifteen miles of S fc Francis neither did he hear of 
any & he apprehended there is no settlement near than Tres 
Riveres which is about fifteen miles from St Francis and that 
there is of St Francis 8 & Shatacooks 9 about one hundred & 
Twenty fighting men that S k Francis Lyes on ye north side the 
River of that Name & her three great Guns not mounted which 
they fire on Some occasion that there is young woods about the 
Town on ye Fast & north sides & that he apprehends the Dis- 
tance to Mount Royal from S fc Francis about fifty miles South- 
west Southerly & that M Royal is Walled all Round about 
twelve feet high about Same thickness of Crown Point & and as 
is about as big as Charlestown that the Town is built Long & 
narrow and has many Gates to it that there are on that Island 
four or five hundred houses Twenty seven Cannon & two mor- 
tars all planted on a little hill within the walls and that he saw 
about Twenty vessels in Quebeck River at one time which were 

" The Great River," " The River of the Great Bay." In an account of his second 
voyage Cartier styled it le grand fleuve tie Hochelaga, It was also sometimes 
called the "The River Canada." This word seems to have come from the Iro- 
quois vocabulary, and meant " Land of the Lakes." The Indians in the vicinity 
of Quebec — Kebec — were culled Canadis, by the, French, or Canadacoa, in their 
own tongue, which became Canadian with the French, and was applied to the 
people of the valley of the St. Lawrence. The Indian name probably meant 
'• People living near the water." This might mean both river and lake. The St. 
Lawrence was also known as the " river Saque." Quebec is the site of an Indian 
town known as Stadonica, and the word as accepted by the French was 
variously spelled as Kebec, Kebek, Quebeck, Quebec. The native word signified 
In that dialect " The narrowing of the water." 

7. Richelieu River. 

8. The history of St. Francis was a stormy one. It became the most noted 
mission in New France, as well as the strongest, until it was raided and laid in 
ruins by Major Rogers and his Rangers in 1759. But this expedition was not alone 
disastrous to the red men, who were taken completely by surprise by the whites, 
for many of the Rangers, as singular as it must seem, lost their way upon their 
return and perished in the great northern wilderness. 

9. An Indian settlement below St. Francis sometimes given as Sagarac. 


a kind of Brigantines and that during his Tarrying at S fc Francis 
which was about three weeks the French carried meat at most 
Every day & Distributed it among the Indians and as they took 
no account of it nore made any Reconing about it he apprehended 
it Sent from the Government and also he saw five barrels of 
powder & some balls and Coats which the Indians told him the 
French gave them and that at Tres Riveres there is a Furnace 
where they Cast Great Guns & that fourty men were Sent from 
old France for that purpose. By order 




I— I 


Early Recollections of Manchester. 


Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

I wish to say that I am laboring under some disadvantage in 
speaking before the society tonight. I am not here with a pre- 
pared article, and indeed it was not expected that I should have 
one, although I think it should be the purpose of every man who 
presents matter before this society to present it in such a way 
that it may be recorded and entered in the proceedings and 
printed records of the association. 

I wish also to congratulate the President and society upon 
the success of the efforts that have been made by Mr. Perkins 
in behalf of the membership. We certainly are sure that there 
is a growing interest in the Historical society of Manchester, 
and we believe that our leading citizens generally ought to take 
a vital interest in this work because now is the time to preserve 
the history of our city and of our state. There are a great 
many things that have been lost simply because they have not 
been recorded. It was my fortune to be on intimate terms of 
friendship with the late Judge Nesmith of Franklin, and there 
probably was no man who was better informed with regard to 
the historic events of the last fifty or one hundred years than he 
was, and yet for some reason he did not commit his knowledge 
to writing, and when he died, of course it was lost. 

Now what I have to say tonight will be mostly of a personal 
character, relating very largely to myself. It is not in manu- 
script, and indeed I do not know that anything that I shall say 
will be worthy of being put into print. 

I think that the history of Manchester properly should be 


divided into three periods or epochs. I would divide it in this 
way: The first period should include the history, so far as we 
may be able to obtain it, of the aborigines who occupied this 
territory for so many years. In the second place, the history 
should extend (for reasons which perhaps I may state here- 
after) from the period of the settlement of the town until about 
the year 1838. The third epoch should cover the time since 
for an indefinite period. My remarks will be made as relating 
more particularly to the latter part of the second period because 
that covers the time of my own early life, and especially the 
early history of Manchester as a corporate body. 

Every man perhaps has a desire to recall as far as he can the 
first event in his life that he can remember. I have sometimes 
asked people, and a great many of them, how old they were at 
the time of the first event that they can recall, and I find the 
general statement to be that but few people (when they have 
reached fifty years of age or more) recall events occurring be- 
fore they were five or six years of age. I do not know that I 
am an exception to that general rule, but I do recall two events 
that occurred when I was less than four years of age. The 
first event that comes to my recollection is the death of General 
John Stark, who was my great-grandfather on my mother's side. 
I do not remember anything distinctly in regard to him, except 
his funeral ceremony. I recall the fact that I was present, and 
that there were military men there, and we are told by the his- 
torian that the company from Bedford, possibly the Bedford 
Light Infantry, attended upon that occasion. 

The second ^vent that I recall in my life was the death of my 
own father which took place in the latter part of the same year, 
1822. I recall this perhaps on account of a peculiar circum- 
stance. I was then less than four years of age, and while I do 
not remember my father in his personal looks, and while I do 
not recall anything that he may have said, I do remember 
the sad day when his remains were laid away to their final rest. 
I recall the fact that there were gathered around his grave 


members of the Masonic fraternity, for he was a member of 
that organization, and then as now they were accustomed to 
bury their dead with ceremonies peculiar to the order, and I re- 
member distinctly of seeing that strange sight (which was a 
strange sight indeed to me) of men standing around the grave 
wearing white aprons upon their person, and, it made a deep 
and lasting impression upon me. So I begin my little history 
or sketch of Manchester with the events of that year, and I 
wish to recall many things that I have been made familiar with 
from that date along down through a period of many years. 

Of every individual and of every nation as well, on attaining 
to the age of responsibility the first thought is how to live and 
provide for the sustenance of the body, in which the soul or 
mind dwells and then perhaps beyond that is the thought of 
the beautiful. Every man to a greater or less degree has an 
idea of the beautiful. I have been asked why I think the In- 
dians settled around the Amoskeag Falls, long ago. I think 
that they had this sense of utility or of self preservation, and 
how to provide for the sustenance of their bodies, and they saw 
at once that the Merrimack river, which in those days was full 
of fish, would provide them the means of living to a very large 
degree throughout the year. In the second place I think some- 
times that they also had a clear idea of the beautiful. I re- 
member that when I was a boy among the things that delighted 
me almost more than anything else was to walk upon the banks 
of the Merrimack river in the spring of the year when the 
mountain torrents came down from the north raging and roar- 
ing and foaming, as they did in those days, and as they do now 
in the time of a freshet, and I thought then, as I have also ever 
since thought, thac there is no location in the state of New 
Hampshire, and I think I speak advisedly now, that there is no 
point in the state of New Hampshire more beautiful to the eye 
or more grand or stirring than may be found above Amoskeag 
Falls, looking down upon the Merrimack river and across to the 
hills and mountains of Goifstown and beyond. I have not lost 


my admiration of the scenery about Amoskeag Falls to this day, 
and I do not wonder that the Indians were attracted by its 
beauty and grandeur. 

I recall now something of the roads of Manchester at that 
time. There were perhaps only two or three principal roads in 
that part of Manchester which now constitutes our city as a 
city. In the other and further parts of the town there were 
roads about which I shall not speak, but the principal road was 
the River road, running from Hooksett along the line of the 
river down towards Nashua. Another road ran from the 
vicinity of the falls, through Manchester Centre, or what is now 
known as Hallsville, to old Londonderry, while another some- 
what to the north, over the hills, reached the same point. 
The town was then a farming community. The people were 
mostly farmers, and the town itself was covered almost entirely 
with a dense growth of forest. Hardly any of the land on the 
road from Hooksett along the line of the river was more than a 
few rods in width between the river and the forest. The woods 
came down to within thirty or forty rods of the house in which 
General Stark lived, and alon^ the entire distance, except in a 
few places there was only a small space between the forests and 
the Merrimack river. Of course about the Centre and older 
settled districts the tracts of cleared land were larger, but the 
town itself was mostly in those days covered with a heavy 
growth of wood and timber. 

I also remember among other things something about the 
bridges we had in those days. In the earlier times there was 
but one bridge across the Merrimack river at this point, and 
no other bridge between Hooksett and Nashua, so far as I now 
remember. That bridge finally went to ruin and was afterwards 
rebuilt, but I remember when it was in a dilapidated condition 
going across on the timbers, for much of the business of Man- 
chester was done not in the town of Manchester, but in the vil 
lage of Piscataquog, called Squog for short. There were two 
or three stores over there, while there was only one very small 


one, or possibly two, on this side of the river, so the people of 
Manchester were accustomed to cross on this old bridge or by 
the ferry, which was in existence at that time, sometimes cross- 
ing just below what was McGregor bridge, and sometimes 
crossing by Merrill's Falls, but most of the transportation was 
done by boats because the bridge was not in a safe condition. 

I also remember well about the schools in those days. Man- 
chester in very early times turned its attention to school mat- 
ters. I am not able to give the dates in reference to the forma- 
tion of the schools and many other matters as should be done in 
a historic lecture, but this is not of that character. It is only a 
little bit of a talk. I remember the little old school house at the 
Falls. There is a very fine picture of it in the history of Man- 
chester as given by Judge Potter. I do not know but our Pres- 
dent made the picture. I presume he did. It gives a very 
correct idea of the school house, and that is the first place where 
I attended school when a boy four or five years of age. I re- 
member the first school master that ever taught in that school 
when I went there, and that was the late Judge Aaron Whitte- 
more of Pembroke, whom I looked upon as a cold, indifferent, 
and hard-hearted man, but whom I later found to be cordial 
and genial, a very friendly man and a very excellent teacher. 
There were three schools in the town at the time. Besides all 
this, it was a common thing to have instruction for the smaller 
children in private schools. I remember that two of these 
schools were held, one in the house of John Stark, and the 
other in the house of Mr. Kennedy, a little above the Reform 
School. The people of Manchester in their earlier days were 
imbued with the idea that knowledge was essential not only to 
children, but essential to people of larger growth, and I believe 
that this has been a characteristic of Manchester ever since, 
that it has been devoted to the purposes of education and the 
development of the human mind. 

I remember the locks and canals, and the canal that was built 
by Judge Blodget. although I do not know that 1 recall him. This 


enterprise was one quite remarkable in its character in those 
early times. We must remember in thinking of these things 
that it was long before the day of trolley cars, railroads and 
easy riding carriages with rubber tires on the wheels. In fact 
there was hardly anything but ox carts and carts made with the 
bodies resting upon solid axle trees of the cart itself, and so it 
was not an easy thing to ride in the carriages of that day. I 
also remember when the stone lock was built. As I recall now, 
at the point where the canal entered was a guard gate, or gate 
opening into a reservoir, and just below this gate and just at 
the lower extremity of this reservoir were two locks that were 
used for carrying through boats or rafts as the case might be, 
I will not now stop to describe these locks. Then there was a 
long canal extending nearly down to what is now the bridge 
across the river. From there, there were three locks that 
opened from the canal down into the river. In my early days, 
perhaps 1825, one of the locks gave out and they replaced it 
with a lock built entirely of stone, and it became a permanent 
structure, I remember very well the men who built the lock, 
indeed they occupied my father's house at the time, and we re- 
moved to a new house up the river. And this leads me to say 
just now in passing that at the time about which I am speaking, 
there were but ten houses in the whole of Manchester proper. 
I do not include the outskirts of the town, or the North End, or 
the South End, neither do I include Amoskeag or Squog, be- 
cause these two villages were then, one in the town of Goffs- 
town and the other in portions of Bedford. There may be some 
here who did not know that portions of Goffstown and Bedford 
were ever added to our city. 

I remember one little instance that occurred when I was only 
four or five years old, or six years of age at the most. Al- 
though a boy I was on very familiar terms with the men on the 
river, both boatmen and raftmen. My father's house was a 
boarding house, and my mother after becoming a widow, con- 


tinued the house for the accommodation of the rivermen, 
whether boatmen or rafters, as they were called, and so I 
knew almost every boatman on the river. They usually stayed 
over night, or stopped at the house for dinner. During the 
time that goods were being carried by boats I remember that 
I was down at the locks one day to see what was being done, 
and I noticed quite a number of small packages. I called 
them little barrels in those days, and upon inquiry I found that 
they were packages of white lead. That was when white lead 
was first being used for painting houses. The merchants had 
bought these in Boston and v/ere taking them up to Concord 
and other places for sale. I stooped down to lift up one of 
these packages and I was unable to do it; it was a little pack- 
age weighing about twenty-five pounds, but I was unable to lift 
it because it was so heavy. 

The rivermen call my attention now for a moment. There 
were two classes of rivermen, the raftmen and the boatmen, 
and they were quite unlike in their character and in their habits. 
The raftmen came down once a year on their way to Boston or 
Newburyport, as the case might be. I need not describe the 
rafts as I presume they are familiar to you all. In going over 
the falls they were obliged to have, as they usually had, a com- 
petent man to pilot the raft. He was upon the rear part of the 
timber, and acted as captain of the raft. On the forward end 
oftentimes were two men for the purpose of changing the direction 
of the raft as it was moving. The man in the rear gave direc- 
tions which way to pull their oars in order to clear the rocks. 
This gave employment to a class of men who lived here in the 
spring. They were called captains and oftentimes were em- 
ployed by the men who owned the rafts to take them down as 
far as Litchfield. These men demanded pretty extravagant 
wages; some used to charge $2.00 or $3.00 for taking a raft 
from here to Litchfield. In those days, however, the means of 
communication were not very good, and the men returned with 
their oars on their shoulders, because they had no other means 


of bringing them back. A heavy oar weighed from twelve to 
twenty five pounds. The boatmen were a different class of 
people. While some were prominent citizens of this and other 
neighborhoods, yet there were writers who spoke of them as 
very common men. I esteem them highly for their character 
and great, good nature. The captains, or pilots of these boats, 
as I recall many of them, were charged with a high degree of 
responsibility. The freights in their charge often amounted to 
hundreds, perhaps thousands of dollars, and I never knew a 
captain of one of these boats during the entire time that they 
were upon the river to forfeit his honor. And so far as I know 
there was never a defalcation laid to their charge. I regard 
them now as men of character and standing. I could call the 
names of some who ranked as prominent men in this and other 
places where they lived. 

As to railroads, I remember very well when the first railroad 
was built through this place, and I wish to relate a little inci- 
dent that is very gratifying to me. I believe that I stand before 
you tonight as the first man, or rather boy, who was ever drawn 
by the power of steam in the state of New Hampshire. The 
circumstances were these. This was before a railroad was built 
in the state or perhaps in the country, for I think the first rail- 
road was built about 1830, and this must have been in 1825 or 
1826. A man who had learned something of the power of 
steam prepared a lecture and went about the country deliver- 
ing it. I was a lad five or six years of age when he came to 
Amoskeag and gave his lecture in the hall upon the other side 
of the river. My family took me with them when they went to 
that lecture. This man set up a little tramway across the hall, 
possibly eight or ten inches in width and four or five inches 
from the floor, and upon that little track or frame work, 
he placed a little engine that was not more than a foot in length 
perhaps, and a small box car for a passenger to ride upon. He 
called for somebody to take a ride, and I remember that I re- 
sponded. I stepped upon that little box car, he turned on the 


steam, and it began to puff and blow, and drew me round the 
hall. I think I was the first young man or boy ever drawn by 
the power of steam in the state of New Hampshire. 

As to the occupation of the people in this city, they were, as 
I have said, mostly farmers. They depended perhaps upon the 
ground for a living, but like other people, they enjoyed the 
pleasure and profits of fishing at the fails. 

Manchester in its earlier days bore an unsavory reputation 
on account of the men who gathered about the falls. Men 
came to Manchester from miles around, five, ten and fifteen 
miles, to fish at Amoskeag Falls, and they would spend days 
and possibly weeks fishing. I could describe their method of 
fishing but I will not take the time. These men who came here 
from out of town were more or less addicted to drinking, and in 
this way the Manchester people acquired the reputation of be- 
ing accustomed to the free use of intoxicating liquors ; hence, 
the early citizens suffered from the acts of others, as men often- 
times do. Most of the fishing was done in the night time. 
Shad and salmon fishing were done in the day time, but the 
fishing for lamper eels was mostly at night. The lamper eel 
is a kind of fish that we do not see much of in these days, but 
at that time the Merrimack river was full of them. These eels 
had a peculiarity about them. Their mouth was such that when 
they put it upon a log or stone, or anything they came in con- 
tact with, they could stick there and hold themselves for an in- 
definite period, with their tails flopping back and forth in the 
water. These fish came up the river in the springtime in great 
numbers. I remember a peculiar incident that occurred to a 
man by the name of McMurphy. He came up from Derry to 
fish. This man was acquainted with my father and stayed at 
his house during his fishing trip ; once he went out and fished 
all night. He caught a wagon load of lamper eels and was 
covered with eel blood from head to foot. In the morning he 
concluded that he was pretty tired and weary and instead of re- 
turning directly to his home, he decided to wash up and go 


to bed and sleep awhile. About four or five o'clock in the 
afternoon he came down from the chamber and, looking around 
for a little while, somewhat dazed perhaps, he exclaimed to my 
father, " Squire Kidder, is it possible that the sun is rising in 
the west?" He had slept during the day, and being bewildered 
thought the sun was just rising in the west. 

The people of Manchester in those days were peculiar in 
some respects. They had their means of amusement perhaps 
as people did in other places, but there was one peculiarity 
about them in this respect, that each and every man had a nick- 
name. These names often held to them as long as they lived 
and sometimes it led to some embarrassment. I remember the 
nickname given to one of these eccentric men whose name was 
Baker. He was called " Cud Baker" because he was a great 
chewer of tobacco and used it in a very filthy kind of a way. 
Then there was another man by the name of Babson, who was 
perhaps as witty as any man in the town. He was called Cor- 
poral Babson. How he came by his na4ne I do not know, as he 
never was a military man. He and others, prompted by their 
wit, got up a catechism. We all remember the old New Eng- 
land primer, a small book of a religious character which con- 
tained the shorter catechism. I suppose they derived the idea 
from that, and they prepared this catechism, in which they intro- 
duced the name of every man, and perhaps almost every woman 
in the place. I have seen that in my earlier days, and I do not 
know but it is in existence now. It was full of wit and wisdom. 

I also remember the first menagerie or caravan of wild beasts 
that ever came to town. The exhibition was given over in Bed- 
ford, not in Manchester proper, and although on a small scale, 
it was quite a show for those days. I also remember the first 
circus which was held at Amoskeag. Although very much 
smaller, and with fewer men employed than now, it embraced 
many of the performances which are characteristic of the circus 
of today. 

I also remember something about the library. I have spoken 



before of the interest taken by the inhabitants in the matter 
of education. There was early established a library in the cen- 
tre of the town which was maintained several years. Eventually, 
however, it was given up. There was also religious teaching as 
well. Not only was there preaching in the town, but the people 
supported a Sunday school. I obtained some of my early re- 
ligious instruction possibly in that Sunday school. The Sunday 
school was held in the country school house, nearly opposite to 
Amoskeag Falls. A peculiarity about it was the method of 
teaching. We learned each Sunday a certain number of verses 
which were given to each scholar. I am not certain but that 
was a good way to teach religious truths. There are those who 
have learned in this way passages of Scripture that gave them 
comfort as long as they lived and strengthened their faith in the 
hour of dissolving nature. The members of the school were 
obliged to pay one cent a week for privileges of the school. I 
think the school was organized by the wife of the late Hon. 
F. G. Stark. She was a very religious and devoted woman, and 
when the boys and girls could not procure their penny to put in 
the contribution box upon the Sabbath, it was arranged to have 
them bring an egg and Mrs. Stark would take the egg and put 
a cent into the contribution box in place of the egg the child 
had brought. Following a little further along the line of re- 
ligious services, Dr. Oliver Dean, who was a noble hearted man 
and did a great deal for the city of Manchester by his personal 
influence in about 1825, was instrumental in organizing the first 
religious society in Amoskeag. Subsequently this society was 
removed to this side of the river, and became the Lowell Street 
Universalist church. In the early days of Manchester a Con- 
gregational society was organized at the head of which stood 
Dr. C. W\ Wallace, who in power for good and happy influence 
was excelled by no man in this vicinity. I believe that if Dr. 
Wallace had been educated in our schools as young men are 
today, he would have been the leading man of the state of New 
Hampshire. As it was, he had few equals and certainly no 


superiors as a public speaker. When he was moved by some 
local event I have heard such words of eloquence fall from his 
lips as perhaps I never heard from any other man. His great 
power for good in this community but few of us are able to ap 

I will detain you but a moment longer. There are other 
things that I desired to say a word about, but time will not 
allow. You have before you, from what I have said, something 
of the character of the early men of Manchester. They were 
sober men ; industrious, prudent, and patriotic, excelled by no 
people in the state of New Hampshire. I believe that history 
records the fact that at one time every able bodied man in the 
town of Manchester was away in the army fighting the battles 
of the country, thus showing the patriotic character of these 
early men. I might name over family after family of noble 
citizens ; and it is no wonder that Dr. Wallace, in his centen- 
nial address, spoke of these men as being among the very first 
of their class in this or any other country ; and we believe that 
this was the true characteristic of the early inhabitants of Man- 
chester. I thank you for the kind and cordial attention given 
to these broken remarks. 

The Water Supply of Manchester. 


Mr. President and Gentlemen : 

While I am not a citizen of Manchester by birth, I have been 
familiar with most of its streets since a little boy, and having 
lived here for the past ten years, I have taken some interest in 
her growth and progress and much interest in the Manchester 
Historic Association and the valuable papers which have been 
presented. Like Mr. Leavitt in his paper on the old Bridge 
Street Pound, I believe we should not lose sight of those land- 
marks and points of interest which exist in the present but may 
not in the future, and so upon request I have written a short 
paper upon the springs and water supply of Manchester of to- 
day, and what I have been able to learn of the springs of the 
past. But before I discuss the springs and their uses, let me 
correct an error in the paper of our friend, Mr. Leavitt, where 
he speaks of the water of our city being taken from the muddi- 
est portion of Massabesic. Surely the wat^r pumped from the 
old pumping station has left the pond and entered Cohas brook, 
as clean a canal as any one could ask for, where it runs for about 
4,800 feet before it is received into the pumps, and then travels 
one and one half miles in iron pipe to the reservoir, where 
it is again forced to the air and sunlight before entering the city. 
The new station takes its water from a stand pipe seven feet 
from the bottom of the lake and the water does not come in 
contact with the mud, as it is a gravel bottom for a radius of 
1,800 feet of the stand pipe, and the water is forced through 
iron pipe for a distance of five miles to the high service reser- 
voir, where it again comes into contact with the air and sunlight 


before entering the city proper. The chemical analysis shows 
some of the finest of municipal drinking waters, as I shall show 
farther on. As to the city water being put in at the Oak Hill 
hospital, better known as the pest house, to avoid too much 
change when patients were carried there, I have this to say, and 
I think I speak with authority, having been connected with the 
Board of Health, as one of its inspectors for the past five years. 
In the winter of 1900 and 1901 the city found itself with an 
epidemic of smallpox, which was handled and under the im- 
mediate and sole care of the Board of Health. At one time 
there were fifty patients at the hospital, the ground frozen and 
our only supply of water a well on the premises, which entirely 
gave out, and we were obliged to hire Mr. Libby, at the City 
Farm, to haul water to supply the hospital during that winter. 
It was for that reason and to help the matron in charge, and also 
as a partial protection against fire, that city water was placed in 
the hospital, and not to avoid any change in the patient's diet 
as referred to. 

As to the ponds, I leave it to your good judgment whether you 
prefer to have your children wading in, or inhaling the fumes 
from the filthy, mosquito-breeding, death-breeding germs of 
filthy pools, or running and playing on the green grass plots of 
our commons as they are today, with the air perfumed by the 
beds of beautiful flowers and shrubs. Let us hope that the 
changes which have taken place have been for the better up- 
building of our boys and girls, and may they still continue to 
skate on the water of Lake Massabesic as distributed on the 
commons by John Fullerton and his able corps of assistants, 
rather than Mile Brook with its open channel receiving the re- 
fuse and sewerage of two miles of drainage, through our most 
thickly populated part of the city. 

Manchester might well have been called at one time, the city 
of springs, for turn which way you mighty forty years ago, the 
thirsty man could have found clear, sparkling water gushing 
forth from the hills and plains. But Manchester then and 



today are two vastly different cities, and some of the spring-* 
which then gave forth that life-giving, health invigorating fluid 
have become polluted and are, or would be, if allowed to flow, 
sending forth death dealing germs which the Board of Health is 
so earnestly striving to destroy. I have collected samples of 
water from all the known springs that are allowed to be used today 
and have the analysis of the same on file at the office. Some of 
these are good and pure today and are used by hundreds of 
people ; others are in use, but as shown by analysis, must 
shortly be closed and their water turned into the sewers, as 
they show more and more pollution as the territory surrounding 
becomes populated. Such is the Hanover spring, located on 
the east side of Hanover common and which supplies the foun- 
tains on Elm street from Bridge street to Lake avenue and 
Hanover street west of Chestnut street and the City hall cor- 
ridor. This water has been constantly watched by the Board, 
and it has now reached the point where it is very near if not 
quite to the danger line. 

Analysis of Hanover spring water stated in parts per 100,000. 









Aug. 9, 1894 






June 18, 1895 








May 12, 1896 







May 27, 1896 





June 10, 1896 







June 10, 1897 








*Aug. 21, 1901 







*Aug. 23, 1902 






Aug. 24, 1901 







Aug. 23, 1902 







*City hall corridor. 

All organic matter contains nitrogen, whether of vegetable 
or animal origin. This nitrogen forms various combinations 
which indicate conditions of the organic matter in which it occurs. 
Thus, free ammonia is a product of the first stage of decompo- 
sition, while albumenoid ammonia is the ammonia formed from 
the organic matters present and undecomposed in the water, 


but decomposed in the process of analysis as the best way of 
measuring the organic matter present. 

Nitrites is the second stage of the natural decomposition of 
organic matter and when found with large amounts of free am- 
monia it indicates decomposition going on and usually the pres- 
ence of micro organisms for natural decomposition or rotting is 
now known to be the work of such organisms. 

Nitrates indicate that the organic matter is wholly changed 
to mineral matter and is no longer in a state to support life of 
micro organisms. This may be taken up by plant roots and 
thus all trace of the original organic matter be removed. 

Chlorine usually is present in the form of common salt, a 
perfectly harmless substance, but it serves as a tell-tale to show 
what sort of company the water has kept in the past. It is very 
soluble and is neither decomposed nor taken up by plants. It, 
therefore, stays with the water through filter-beds of earth or 
anything. The amount of it in natural waters is very small but 
varies with different localities though it is very constant for a 
given place. Thus, in and about Manchester, it is not far 
from four-tenths part per ioo,oooth. Salt is present in large 
quantities in all animal dejections and if the chlorine of a water 
is perceptibly above the normal for that locality, it indicates 
past animal pollution. Hardness has the same indication, lime 
being a part of all animal dejections and if found above the 
local normal indicates animal pollution. 

Then there is the spring on the West Side near the junction 
of Main and McGregor streets and the Eddy road. The record 
of this spring has been kept by Mr. William K. Robbins, the 
clerk of the Board of Health, and chemist for the Amoskeag 
Manufacturing Company. When first he tested this water there 
were but few houses within a radius of one-third of a mile, and 
the water was remarkably pure, but now there are houses thickly 
settled nearly to its edges, and the constant building of dwellings 
and the increased number of people constantly hemming it in, 
has just so constantly kept the water showing more contam- 


ination, until it also has come very near to the danger line, and 
in a short time will have to become a thing of the past. 

So it would have been with the springs of which Mr. Leavitt 
speaks. Think, my friends, of drinking water from springs lo- 
cated near a fill for a street and knowing that those streets were 
made from street sweepings, cess-pool cleanings, and the refuse 
from 60,000 people, as you know that most of our filled streets 
have been made. Go to the North End where once was the old 
fair ground, where our soldiers of the Civil War camped. See 
the number of houses with their richly fertilized lawns and num- 
berless barn cellars, and would you drink from the old spring 
if there ? I think not. 

But we have some springs which you may stoop down to and 
drink with safety, the finest of which, according to analysis, is 
known as the Stark spring, situated at the north side of our 
beautiful Stark park, and which from its location will probably 
remain pure for many years. Then there are two springs located 
in Derryfield park which are nearly as good as the one at Stark 
park. There is another at the northwest corner of Valley and 
Beech streets, which is used a great deal. That is good. There 
is another on the land of A. D. Gooden that supplies the family 
of Capt. David Perkins at the corner of Lake avenue and Mil- 
ton street, which is also very good. 

In my younger days, I can remember of watering the horse at 
this latter spring as we drove in from Raymond. Still another 
spring of note, and which shows fine water, is the one which 
supplies the watering trough about one mile this side of Gofife's 
Falls. There are two other springs which have long since gone 
by, and which once quenched the thirst of the hard laboring 
man and many families. One was located just at the rear of 
Horatio Fradd's store and the other, which was unearthed this 
summer by the workmen building the new mill on the West Side 
was on the land of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. 

Other springs which are now in existence, and some of them 
in actual use, include the following : One at the corner of Val- 

8 4 


ley and Elm streets, just west of Valley cemetery, one at the 
south end of the gas house and just east of the Elm Street 
bridge, one on land of John Porter at the south end of Jewett 
street, one opposite the Kimball shoe factory and north of ceme- 
tery brook on land of the Elliot Hospital, one just north of 
Blood's Locomotive works, one on the east side of Canal street 
opposite the Olzendam hosiery, and used for years by the em- 
ployees of the bag mill, one at the northwest corner of Beech and 
Summer streets, which used to be used by hundreds, but has 
now been destroyed to make room for a house, one about 200 
feet west of Beech street on old Park street, now Lake avenue. 
All these springs have in their day done yeoman service but 
have had to give way to old Massabesic, as they have grown 
foul by the increase of population or the erection of buildings. 
Many people will miss these cool waters, but the pride of them 
all, the water which will stand by us for ages and of which we 
may with safety drink freely, is the soft, clear water of Massa- 
besic which flows constantly and faithfully into nearly every 
household in the city. The area of this lake is 2500 acres, and 
its twenty-eight miles of shore is lined with noble pines, oaks 
and pretty cottages, constantly watched over by an officer of 
the health board. Of the purity of this supply there can be no 
doubt, as is shown by the following analysis : 




McGregorville Spring 
McGregorville Spring 
McGregorville Spring 
McGregorville Spring 
Stark Spring, 
Derryrield Spring, 
Spring, Valley and Beech 

Street*, Aug 

Spring, Amoskeag Reservoir 

yard, Sept 

Spring, Cor. Valley and Elm 

Streets, Nov. 

Goffs Falls Spring, Nov. 

Spring, Manchester Gas 

House, Nov. 23, '01 





. 5, 















cq Han Sp 
















High Service Intake, 

Jan. 1, '97 




High Service Intake, 

May 12, '96 




High Service Intake, 

Aug. 16, '97 




High Service Intake, 

Jan. 23, '02 




Low Service Intake, 

May 12, '96 




Low Service Intake, 

Aug. 16, '97 




Low Service at Bd. Health 


Aug. 23, '02 




Mouth of Brook, Auburn, 

May 12, '96 




Mouth of Brook, Auburn, 

Jan. 1, '97 




Mouth of Brook, Auburn, 

Jan. 24, '02 




Front Pond, Battery Point, 

May 12, '96 




Front Pond, Battery Point, 

Aug. 16, '97 




Front Pond, Battery Point, 

Dec. 20, '01 




Front Pond, Battery Point, 

Jan. 24, '02 




Deer Neck Bog, 

May 12, '96 




Deer Neck Bog, 

Aug. 16, '97 




Deer Neck Bog, 

Jan. 23, '02 




City Faucet, 

May 12, '96 





May 12, '96 




Center of Back Pond, 

May 12, '96 




Center of Front Pond, 

May 12, '96 




Bog, north new station, 

May 12, '96 




The Story of a Private Soldier in the Revolution 


Ladies and Gentlemen of the Historic Association: — The 
morning sun of the twentieth century shines upon a magnificent 
era. Civilization has made wonderful strides in the past hundred 
years. The arts of war, no less than those of peace, have 
reached in our minds the plane of perfection. Our armies on 
the land, and our navy on the sea, are perfect in discipline and 
equipment. We have an arm that has a deadly range at a dis- 
tance of two and one-half miles. We have an ordinance that 
will send a iooo-pound ball through an ir-inch armor plate, at 
a distance of 12 miles. Our military and naval commanders are 
trained in the best schools in the world, and the rank and file 
are disciplined by that training. Contemplating these facts, let 
us draw a comparison. 

Let us turn from the conditions of today, back to the situation 
of a century and a quarter ago. From the drilled and skilied 
professional soldier, to the untrained yeomen of 1775, who stood 
behind those clumsy flintlock muskets, grimly waiting the ap- 
proach of the best drilled soldiers of Europe. 

History tells us much of brave deeds of commanding officers, 
of how they fought and won ; but of the sturdy fellows who stood 
behind the guns, poorly paid, miserably fed, and scantily 
equipped, and fought through that dreary period of seven years, 
we have left but little individual record. 

It is of one, who as a private soldier in the Revolution, bore 
an honorable part, that I wish to tell you tonight. 

Moses Fellows, my mother's grandfather, was born in Plais- 


tow, N. H., Aug. 9, 1755. He removed to Salisbury, N. H., 
with his parents, when n years of age, and settled on a tract of 
wild land on the slopes of Kearsarge mountain. 

Their life was full of frontier incidents. Occasionally an Indian 
scare, now and then, a bear or deer was hunted, and killed, to 
replenish the larder. At the age of 18 he killed a moose on the 

Under such conditions the youth developed into a young man 
of rugged constitution and iron nerve, and when the news of 
Lexington and Concord came up the valley of the Merrimack, 
he, with eight others from Salisbury, hastened to enlist in Cap- 
tain Baldwin's Company, of John Stark's Regiment, and hurried 
to the scene of action. 

At the Battle of Bunker Hill, Stark's command and a body of 
200 Connecticut men were stationed at the rail fence, the line 
extending to Mystic river. Their ammunition was limited to 
twelve rounds to a man. The stern order ran along the line, 
"Don't fire till you see the whites of their eyes, and then aim at 
their waistbands." Thus the New Hampshire boys waited the 
approach of the British regulars on the morning of June 17, 


When the enemy had reached a certain point, the order to 
fire was given, and the 800 men under Stark, went to work as 
coolly as though they were hoeing corn on their native hills, fir- 
ing slowly and deliberately, seeking to make every shot tell. 
Captain Baldwin went down, but the Salisbury men fought on 
till the last round had been exhausted, and Moses Fellows found 
himself with a single charge of powder, and no ball left ; but 
the boy from Kearsarge rammed home the powder, left the ram- 
rod in the barrel, and blazed away at close range. The dis- 
charge was effective, for a Redcoat was spitted by the novel 

The result of the fight at Bunker Hill, is history. Though in 
fact it was gained by the British, the moral effect was a victory 
for the Americans. The colonists demonstrated to themselves 


and the world that they could fight, that they were in earnest, 
and that their colors were up to stay. 

After the battle, Colonel Stark's regiment was stationed at 
Winter Hill, near Boston. 

On the 8th of September, 1775, Moses Fellows, and one of his 
Salisbury mates, secured a transfer to Captain Dearborn's Com- 
pany, which was to join an expedition up the Kennebec river 
through the wilderness, with Quebec as an objective point, under 
Benedict Arnold. 

And, as I reach the name of Arnold in this narrative, I am 
constrained to diverge slightly from my topic. 

Benedict Arnold — history has said little of him, but what it 
has said, has been spoken in words of ignominy and shame, and 
in a great measure justly. 

What I have to say is this: What a dismal collapse of a 
brilliant career was Arnold's downfall. He had a grievance, and 
in a certain measure a just one. For reasons that have not been 
fully explained, he was jumped in rank by another officer. So 
was Stark, who retired from the service upon his dignity. But 
instead of following Stark's example, Arnold, who might have 
figured in history as the Sheridan of the Revolution, sacrificed 
his honor and his name, and disappeared forever. 

We return to the Quebec expedition. They went aboard the 
vessel at Newburyport, on Sept. 19, 1775, an ^ sailed up the 
Kennebec river, to Fort Western, now Augusta. Two women, 
wives of soldiers, accompanied the expedition throughout ; a 
Mrs. Greer and a Mrs. Warner. At Fort Western they disem- 
barked, and took to boats with their provisions and stores, went 
up the river to the Great Carrying Place, so called, where they 
landed, and went 12 miles over land, to Dead river, carrying 
their boats and provisions, four men bearing a barrel of flour 
hung on two poles by ropes. The boats were turned bottom 
up, and carried upon the men's shoulders. Thus they traveled 
to the head of Dead river, through the trackless forest of Maine ; 
arriving at that point, they divided their provisions, and each 


man took his share. Then they traveled five miles over the 
Highlands, to a river that runs into Skedack pond, followed 
down the river to the pond, went around the east and north 
sides of the pond, until they came to the Chaudire river, in 
Canada, the outlet of the pond. They traveled down the east 
side of the river, ten or twelve days, to the French settlements, 
which they reached the 9th day of November, 1775, followed 
down the St. Lawrence river to Point Levi. On the 13th of 
November they crossed the river, and went to the Plains of 
Abraham, but not having a force strong enough to attack the 
enemy, they went back up the river, eleven miles to Point Au- 
trembles, and stayed there until General Montgomery came 
down from Montreal, with his cannon and mortars. 

During their journey through the wilderness, their provisions 
were exhausted, which caused much suffering from hunger. 

After their provisions were divided at the head of Dead river 
many of the men were not economical with their food, conse- 
quently, were soon without anything to eat. He was prudent 
of his, and was fortunate enough to kill a partridge, which he 
boiled, made a supper and breakfast out of the broth, carrying 
the meat with him for future use. By so doing, he did not suf- 
fer as much as some less prudent. The men were compelled to 
dig roots, cook and eat them. An old dog that had followed 
the army, was killed, and eaten by the hungry men, even to 
his feet, nose and taiL 

Their shoes gave out and many made moccasins out of raw 
moose hide. He secured the skin off the hind legs of a moose, 
and by using the joint skins for the heel of his moccasin, made 
quite a comfortable article of footwear. Others made them 
Indian fashion. 

Before they got through the wilderness, some of the men 
boiled their moose hide moccasins, ate them and drank the 
broth. The last two or three days many of them had absolutely 
nothing to eat. 

After they reached the French settlements, they were well 


treated, and everything was supplied them that the Frenchmen 
could provide for so many men. 

In after life, when relating his war experiences, he said, "The 
French were good to the American soldiers." 

On the 31st day of December, 1775, they moved down to 
Quebec, starting at two o'clock in the morning, and by daylight 
began the attack on the British stronghold, General Montgom- 
ery, leading the attack, fell at the first fire. General Morgan, 
his successor, kept up the fight, until unable to advance in the 
face of such tremendous odds. He took refuge in the neigh- 
boring houses, where he was finally compelled to surrender. 

Arnold, on the other side of the city, was severely wounded 
in his leg, while bravely fighting at the head of his troops, and 
was borne to the rear. Cagtain Morgan, with sixty men, of 
whom Moses Fellows was one, went to within twenty rods of the 
Palace Gate, and discharged five mortars at the city. They 
were fired upon from the castle, with double-headed shot. This 
was about the last of the batttle. Arnold's command then re- 

Smallpox broke out among the troops before the battte, and 
from this cause, the little army was badly disabled. 

About the middle of January, 1776, all of Arnold's men who 
were not taken prisoners, left for Montreal. 

On arriving there, the time for which he enlisted having ex- 
pired, -he was discharged. They left with their baggage, for 
Fort Chambly, where he enlisted for two and one half months, 
after serving his time out. He was detained in the service four 
weeks, then discharged. 

He and his Salisbury comrade, John Bowen, with others, 
started for home, a distance of about 500 miles ; on the journey, 
someone killed a partridge ; another killed a crow; they skinned 
them and put the partridge's skin on the crow's body, and ex- 
changed the false partridge at the first tavern they came to, for 
some rum to cheer them up. 


He arrived home about the first of June, 1776, having been 
gone a little over a year, he resumed his labors on the farm. 

In April, 1777, he re-enlisted for three years' service as 
Orderly- Sergeant, in Captain Gray's Company; along with him 
enlisted eight other Salisbury men, at this time. 

This Company was assigned to Colonel Scammel's Regiment, 
known as the Third New Hampshire, and immediately went to 
Ticonderoga, where they kept garrison, until the night of the 
5th of Judy following, when they evacuated the Fort, and it fell 
into the hands of the British, under General Burgoyne. 

From there they went to Fort Ann, and were in the battle of 
the Blockhouse. From Fort Ann they went to Fort Edward, 
ariving about midnight, and camped without tents. He was 
taken sick there with fever and ague, and taken to the hospital 
at Albany, New York. 

He next joined the army at Bemis Heights, near Stillwater, 
where they fortified. 

On the 19th of September, 1777, about 10 ojclock in the 
morning, the British army advanced to attack in three columns. 
General Burgoyne commanded the centre, General Fraser, the 
right, and Generals Phillips and Riedesel the left wing. Upon 
the front, and flanks of the columns, hung Indians, Tories and 

General Gates sent out Captain Morgan, with his riflemen, 
and Major Dearborn with his infantry. 

Captain Morgan passed unobserved, through a piece of woods, 
and drove back a party of Canadians and Indians, and unex- 
pectedly came upon the main body of the British troops. His 
men were scattered. For a moment he was left alone, but a 
shrill whistle brought his sharp shooters around him. At this 
moment, Colonels Cilley and Scammel, coming to his aid with 
the New Hampshire Regiments, a sharp contest ensued for a 
time. Then a lull followed. The British brought up their can- 
non, and the patriots, the Connecticut militia under General 
Cook. At 3 o'clock p. m., the fight began with great vigor. 


The patriots captured the British cannon, who, in turn, rallied 
and recaptured them. This was done several times. The battle 
raged with great fury, until darkness compelled the patriots to 
quietly withdraw to their intrenchments. Twice during the 
evening there was sharp skirmishing, and the last American did 
not leave the field until n o'clock p. m. The losses in this 
battle were heavy, on both sides. 

The armies lay within cannon shot of each other until the 7th 
of October, when the British marched out and formed in double 
ranks within a mile of the American camp, and waited events. 
Morgan, with his riflemen, Poor's New Hampshire brigade, and 
Dearborn's Light Infantry were ordered to attack. Steadily the 
New Hampshire men mounted up the slope, reciving one volley, 
and then with a yell, charged for the guns. So fierce was the 
fight that one piece was taken and retaken several times. The 
British lines finally broke. At the second charge of the impetu- 
ous Arnold, leading a part of Learned's Brigade, the British 
centres gave !# way, and the Americans urged the pursuit to the 
very intrenchments of the enemy. 

At night, General Burgoyne evacuated a part of his intrench- 
ments and the next day renewed his retreat, but being hemmed 
in on all sides, he finally surrendered his army, with arms and 
stores, on the 17th of October, 1777. Thus ended the battle of 

After this fight, they went to Fishkill, and from there, marched 
to Whitemarsh, to join General Washington. From Whitemarsh 
they went to Valley Forge, starting Dec. 11, 1777. It was a 
long and painful march of eight days. 

On reaching Valley Forge, they had to build their own hut 
encampments, cutting down trees, and erecting log houses for 
their winter quarters. Their sufferings at Valley Forge have 
hardly been equalled in the history of any war. They were 
without food, without clothes, and without fuel. Straw could 
not be obtained. Soldiers who were enfeebled by hunger, be- 
numbed with cold, were obliged to sleep on the bare ground. 


Sickness followed, and within three weeks 2000 men were unfit 
for duty. 

While Washington was walking with a distinguished foreign 
officer one day along the streets, among the huts, they heard 
voices through the open crevices between the logs, saying, "No 
pay, no clothes, no medicine, no food, no rum." 

Meat was not seen for weeks at a time, and frequently when 
it did appear, the rib bones would be round, indicating "horse 
beef." The terrible hardships at Valley Forge caused the death 
of four men in Captain Gray's Company, who enlisted from 
Salisbury when he did. Their names were: Ephraim Heath, 
Reuben Greeley, Philip Lufkins, and William Bayley. 
They died in March and April, 1778. 

Early in February, 1778, Baron Steuben arrived in camp, and 
was received with great enthusiasm. He soon had the army 
drilling under his supervision. He was very particular in every 
detail, himself inspecting each soldier's musket and accoutre- 
ments. He was obliged to use an interpreter to explain what 
he wanted to do, or have done. When things did not go to suit 
him he would swear in the French, German and Russian lan- 
guages, all at once, to the no slight amusement of the soldiers. 
Towards spring a new quartermaster was appointed, in the 
person of General Greene, and he soon changed the condition 
of affairs. Provisions began to appear in camp, and the half- 
starved soldiers, when well fed, wore a smile. Everything began 
to improve, and the men began to tell stories and crack jokes. 
The American army left Valley Forge, crossed the Delaware 
river, and was ordered to pursue the enemy in the Jerseys. On 
the 27th of June, 1778, his detachment was ordered to Mon- 
mouth, and the next day, the 28th, a hot and sultry morning, 
they met the enemy, and a severe engagement was fought, with 
indecisive results. In the midst of the battle he saw a British 
officer with a horse. He took possession of them, conducted 
them to the rear, and delivered the officer to the proper guards, 
and eventually sold the horse for $40.00. 


Many men died from the effects of the heat alone, during the 
battle, the mercury standing at 96 above zero, in the shade. 

A few days after the Battle of Monmouth, they were ordered 
to White Plains. They moved very slowly, it being very warm, 
and numbers died from the heat on the march. Some of the 
men were so thirsty that when they came to a well or spring of 
water, they drank so much they died almost instantly. He 
drank sparingly until his thirst was quenched. 

While at White Plains he was taken sick, and removed to the 
hospital at Tarrytown. After his recovery he returned to his 
regiment, which soon went into winter quarters at Middlebrook, 
New Jersey. 

In the spring of 1779 his regiment was assigned to General 
Sullivan's army, under orders to march against the Indians in 
the western part of New York, to avenge the Wyoming and 
Cherry Valley massacres. This expedition was planned and 
ordered by General Washington. 

It was late in August when they started from Wyoming, Penn- 
sylvania, going northward, up the Susquehanna river, drawing 
their stores and artillery up the river in 150 boats. At Tioga, 
New York, they were joined by General Clinton, with 1000 New 
York troops, who had marched from Albany, up the Mohawk 
river and Canajoharie creek, to Otsego lake ; thence down the 
Susquehana to Tioga. 

The result of this expedition was almost the total annihila- 
tion of the Six Nations ; their homes and crops were destroyed j 
many of their braves were slain, and whole tribes were scattered. 

After they returned from this campaign they went into quar- 
ters at Morristown, New Jersey, where they suffered nearly, if 
not quite, as much as they did at Valley Forge. 

The lack of bread, meat and clothes, formed the burden of 
their story. They went thirty-six days on half rations, and less. 

The Continental money was so depreciated that $40.00 in 
bills was worth only $1.00 in silver. A soldier's pay for six 
months would hardly buy a dinner. A pair of boots cost $600.00 


in bills, and a glass of rum, when it could be found at all, could 
not be purchased for less than $25.00. Washington was forced 
to make requsition upon the surrounding country, for food and 
raiment for his men. The farmers voluntarily sent in provisions, 
shoes, coats and blankets, while the women, ever loyal, met to- 
gether to knit stockings and sew garments for the needy troops. 

Spring came at last, and the time for which he enlisted having 
expired, he was honorabiy discharged as an Orderly-Sergeant , 
at West Point, on the 20th day of April, 1780, and returned to 
his home at Salisbury. 

Upon his discharge, the orders were to turn in to the Govern- 
ment all arms that passed inspection. Moses Fellows hated to 
part with his dear old gun, which he had carried for five years' 
and so it happened that when the inspecting officer came around 
to examine his weapons the lock of his gun was missing, but 
after the officer had passed on, it was fortunately discovered in 
the tail of his coat. 

During his long life after the war, the old gun occupied a 
conspicuous position, hanging on hooks, over the fireplace, in 
his Salisbury home, and is now preserved as a much-treasured 
relic by one of his descendants. (His name further appears in 
the records of Salisbury, as enlisting again in the spring of 1780, 
and again the record says he enlisted in November, 1781, for 
three years' service, and his name was returned to Colonel 
Stickney. These enlistments might have been as minute man, 
or home guard, but after his discharge in 1780, he did not return 
to active service.) 

After retiring from the army he gave his attention to clearing 
and developing the farm, where he lived, until his death. After 
March 4,1831, he drew a pension from the Government of $100.00 
a year, until his decease, which occurred Jan, 30, 1846, aged 90 
years, 5 months and 21 days. In his declining years it was a 
pleasure for him to meet his old comrades in arms, around his 
fireside, and talk over the scenes of army life, and the children 
of the neighborhood would gather around the old man, and learn 


from him, lessons of patriotism, as illustrated by his stirring ex- 
periences in the past. Before their eager, wondering eyes, he 
would develop his old campaigns; he would don his faded Con- 
tinental regalia, and explain the manual of army drill as taught 
him by Baron Steuben sixty years before : with a trail of lighted 
powder he would illustrate the blaze of Continental fire, which 
met the Red Coats at Bunker Hill, and the young lads, some 
of whom were to act in similar scenes at Little Round Top and 
Cemetery Ridge, would raise a boyish cheer for the brave old 

He lies buried in the old cemetery, at Salisbury South Road, 
and a substantial granite monument, recently erected by his de 
scendants, marks his honored grave. 

I have given you the story of one who bore an humble 
but honorable part in the struggle which fixed the destiny of a 
mighty nation. Imperfect, and inaccurate, in a measure, no 
doubt, for it has been handed down, without authentic record^ 
through four generations, but I have desired to do it, so far as 
able, to the end that in some century to come, when some other 
Gilmore, or Gould, or Brown, may be poring over the musty 
records of an ancient, and long since defunct Historical Society? 
they may find there in the catacombs of a remote period, the story 
of a private soldier in the American Revolution. I believe sin- 
cerely in the aim of this Association : That we should perpetu 
ate the record of those who have aided in building the substan- 
tial structure of our great Republic, that we should profit from 
their stern example. 

"Remembering still the rugged road our venerable fathers trod. 
When they, through toil and danger pressed, to gain their glorious 

And from each lip, the watchword fell, 
To those who followed,— GUARD IT WELL." 

The Two James Rogers. 





It has been quite generally assumed that James Rogers, who 
was one of the earliest settlers of Londonderry, was the same 
man as James Rogers, who was one of the earliest settlers of 
Dunbarton and the father of Col. Robert Rogers "the Ranger;" 
but the records show the contrary. It is the purpose of this 
article to give so much of the history of each as to show that 
there were two of the same name and give some account of 
their families. 


Among the Scotch Irish (i) who in 1717 petitioned for a 
plantation in New Hampshire, were Hugh and James Rogers. 

This petition being denied, John Wheelwright, Oct. 20, 17 19, 
gave the Scotch-Irish a deed of a tract of land ten miles square, 
called Nutneld. 

One half a lot was laid out to James Rogers, July 14, 1721, 
with an interest in the undivided lands. William Campbell 
sold to James Rogers of Billerica thirty acres of land in Nut- 
field, March 8, J721 2. (Bk. 17, p. 316.) 

On June 21, 1722, the State granted to John Moore and 
others (subject to the claims of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay and those claiming under that authority) one hundred and 
sixteen shares to persons named in a schedule annexed, (with 
850 shares additional to some of them), and on the same day 
the proprietors admitted eight others with one share each, and 
granted to Gov. Shute and Gov. Wentworth a house lot and 
500 acres each. This grant is known as the charter of London- 


In this schedule, James Rogers is put down for one half a 
share, and "Wm. Cambel" for one share ; but Hugh Rogers is 
not named. (N. H. State Papers, Vol. XXV, pp. 272 277.) 

I give memoranda of deeds showing the continuous residence 
of James Rogers in Londonderry up to the time of his death. 

July 20, 1727, James Rogers of Londonderry conveyed to 
James Calderwood half a lot of land in Londonderry, and his 
wife joins to release dower. 

James Rogers of Londonderry and Jean, his wife (but she 
did not sign) are named in deed dated Oct. 10, 1732, as con- 
veying to William Dickey land in Londonderry described as 
"part of mendment and addition lands" * * "and one- 
half of meadow land laid out to James Rogers and James Gil- 
more." (Book 19. p. 1.) 

And on the fifteenth of the next January, he conveyed one 
half of the Leverett meadow in Londonderry. ( Book 19, p. 260.) 

By deed dated Dec. 30, 1736, James Rogers of Londonderry, 
yeoman, conveyed to Samuel Allison, land in L., "being part of 
a larger tract of land laid out to me as a proprietor of said 
Londonderry." His wife, Jean, joined to release dower. 

Other deeds of James Rogers of Londonderry , in several of 
which his wife, Jean, joined are dated Dec 21, 1739, i^Bk. 42, 
p. 330); July 3r, 1749, (Bk. 39, p. 260); July 31, 1749, (Bk. 
39, p. 261) ; April 4, 1749, (Bk. 46, p. 128); Aug. 3, 1749, (Bk. 
38, p. 283); and May 24, 1751. ("being part of my second 
division mendment and addition"), (Bk. 39, p. 251). 

On Feb'y 3, 1 746-7, James Lindsay, blacksmith, of London- 
derry, (his wife Margaret joining to release dower) conveyed to 
James Rogers of L., yeoman, all rights in common lands as 
proprietor. ( Bk. 34, p. 117). 

[In 1722 schedule, James Lindsay is credited with one share.] 

July 23, 175 1, Abraham Cochran conveyed to James Rogers 
of Londonderry land in L., "laid out to the right of Henry 
Greene" (who had one share in 1722). (Bk. 38, p. 467.) 

James Rogers of Londonderry conveyed to Thomas Burnside 
sixty-three acres of land in L. This deed was dated Dec. 2, 


1754, but was not acknowledged till Sept. 17, 1755, tw0 days 
after the date of his will, five days before his own death and 
twelve days after the death of his wife. (Bk. 47, p. 206.) 

James Rogers of Londonderry took the oath of allegiance in 
1727 ; signed the "Proposals for Peace" in the famous church 
dissension in 1737, and served on various committees in town 

The surname of his wife is not known ; she died Sept. 5, 

1755, aged 62, and he, Sept. 22, 1 755, aged 69 ; his older brother, 
Hugh (2) survived him, dying March 4, 1763, aged 80, and his 
wife (also named Jean) Feb'y 28, 1756, aged 63. 

The children of James and Jean Rogers, as given in the Lon- 
donderry record, were : 

2. Martha 2 , b. May 3, 1723 ; m. Robert McClure. 

3. Thomas 2 , b. July 7, 1724. 

4. William 2 , b. Sept. 15, 1726. 

5. John 2 , b. June 25, 1729. 

6. James 2 , b. Feb'y 22, 173 1-2; d. young. 
But his will shows that he had others, viz : 

7. Margaret 2 , b. ; m. Samuel Thompson. 

8. Mary 2 , b. ; m. Joseph Scobey. 

9. Jean 2 , b. ;m. William Morrison. 
10. Esther 2 , b. ; m. Samuel Huston. 

It is also quite certain that Samuel Rogers, who died July 4 
1755, aged 16, and was buried near James and Jean, was their 

James 2 is not mentioned in the will and undoubtedly died 

The order in which the daughters are named in the will, in- 
dicates that Margaret, Mary and Jean were older than Martha. 

His will, dated September 15, 1755, gives small legacies to 
several parties, and then divides the residue into eight parts, 
and gives one eighth each 10 son, Thomas; son, William; son ? 
John ; son, Samuel Thompson, and wife, Margaret ; son, Joseph 
Scobey, and wife, Mary; son, William Morrison, and wife, Jean ; 


son, Robert McClure, and wife, Martha ; and Esther Rogers. 
(Vol. XIII, p. 406.) 

On Feb'y 6, 1759, Thomas Rogers of Chester, William 
Rogers, John Rogers, Samuel Thompson, Margaret Thomp- 
son, Joseph Scobey, Mary Scobey, William Morrison, Jean Mor- 
rison, Robert McClure, Martha McClure, Samuel Huston, and 
Esther Huston, "all of Londonderry, yeomen and spinsters," 
conveyed to Hugh Gregg the half lot which James Rogers 
bought of William Campbell ; and Eiizabeth Rogers, wife of 
Thomas, Jeanet, wife of William, and Jean, wife of John, 
join to release dower. (Bk. 100, p. 149.) 

This deed shows that the "James Rogers" of Billerica to 
whom Campbell conveyed was the same James Rogers who 
was an original proprietor of Londonderry. 

Robert McClure, who married Martha 2 , was born in Ireland 
in 1718, and came to this country in his ninth year with his 
father, Richard, who was a ruling Elder in Rev. Mr. Morehead's 
church in Boston j they had a son, James, who married Mary 
Nesmith of Londonderry, "and they were my grand parents." 
(MSS. of A. B. Otis.) 

Samuel Huston, who married Esther 2 (as his second wife), 
was one of the original proprietors of Belfast, Maine. He moved 
there in 1771, and spent the rest of his life there, dying in 
1819. (Williamson's Belfast, p. 96.) 

John is the only other child of James, whose family I have 
even partially traced. He was well known as "Lieutenant 
Rogers ;" he married Jean Ewins, daughter of James; he settled 
first in Londonderry, but moved to Acworth in 1768 ; he died in 
1776, of "camp fever" contracted in bringing home Robert 
McClure from the continental army; his widow died in 1798. 

Children born in Londonderry and Acworth : 
James 3 , b. June 5, 1754. 
Jonathan 3 , b. 
John 3 , b. 

Agnes 3 , b. ; m. Abner Gage. 

Samuel 3 , b. 


Peter 3 , b. 

Baptiste 3 , b. 

Susanna 3 , b. ;m. Joseph Hemphill. 

Hannah 3 , b. 

Elizabeth 3 , b. ; m. Stephen Thornton. 

Esther 3 , b, ; m. (i) Benjamin Hobbs ; 

(2) George Clark ; 

(3) M. Temple. 
These names are not given in the order of births. 

His will (d. Nov. it, 1776, p. Jan'y 1777) mentions "deare 
wife"; "two eldest daughters, Agnes and Elizabeth"; "two eld- 
est sons, James and Jonathan" ; and "the rest of my children." 
Administration on estate of Jean Rogers, late of Ackworth, 
granted to Jonathan and John Rogers, Oct. 9, 1798. 

Will of James Ewins (d. May 1, 1780, p. Aug. 29, 1781) men- 
tions daughter, Jeane Rogers and her husband. John Rogers, 
and gives to "grandson, John Rogers, one lot of land which I 
bought in Ackworth.'' Vol. XXVI, p 170.) 

James z , son of Lt. John, married, Aug. 16, 1784, Mary Mark- 
ham, daughter of Joseph and Mehitable [Spencer] Markham, 
born April 21, 1768; he died June 5, 1819, and she, Aug. 8, 
Children born in Ackworth : 

Jonathan 4 , b. Nov. 18, 1785. 

John 4 , b. Dec. 21, 1786. 

Joseph 4 , b. Mar. 15, 1788. 

Nancy 4 , b. Feb'y 4, 1789 ;d. Feb'y 3, 1813. 

Tamsen 4 , b. Jan'y 2, 1791. 

Ralph 4 , b. Dec. 25, 1792. 

Samuel 4 , b. Dec. 26, 1794. 

Mary 4 , b. Dec. 28, 1796; d. Aug. 6, 1818. 

Lucy 4 , b. Feb'y, 1798. 

Drusilla 4 , b. Aug. 3. 1800 ; d. Mar. 1, 1815. 

Teressa 4 , b. Mar. 11, 1803. 

Ann 4 , b. June 1, 1806. 

Eliza 4 , b. Sept. 1, 1808. 


Jonathan 2 , son of Lc. John, married twice: (i) Polly Maes, 
by whom he had Polly 4 j (2) Elizabeth Rogers (?), by whom he 
had Maes 4 , Ephraim 4 , Nancy 4 , and Alvah 4 . 

John 2 , son of Lt. John, married Polly, daughter of Diniel 
Reynolds; he is said to have moved to Lempster, but died in 
Lexington, Mass., Sept. 2, 1832 ; they had Daniel 4 id. young), 
Maria 4 , Hannah Ophelia 4 , John Adams 4 , Eliza Jane 4 , (d. 
young) , Melvina Bardwell 4 , Stephen Reynolds 4 (b. Jan'y 24^ 
1813), Susan Hemphill 4 (b. Feb'y 28, 1814), Harriet Eliza 4 , 
and Daniel 4 (d. young.) 

Samuel 2 , son of Lt. John, is said to have married Anna 
Dodge of Syracuse, N. Y., and that he died there, leaving one 
son, Charles. 


The first mention which I find of this James Rogers (and it 
is sufficient for the main purpose of this paper) is in the deed 
by which Zaccheus Lovewell of Nottingham conveyed, Novem- 
ber 24, 1738, to James Rogers of Methuen, Mass , husbandman, 
land on westeily side of Suncook township, part of grant to said 
Lovewell and others, soldiers under Capt. John Lovewell. (Bk. 
38, p. 20.) 

This grant was made by Massachusetts, June 19, 1735, to 
Capt. John Gorham's men, and was called Gorhamtown. 

James Rogers in 1739, moved with his family to this lot and 
lived there till April, 1748, when he was driven away by the 
Indians and his improvements destroyed. 

Later in 1748, Rev. David McGregor, John Stark, Archibald 
Stark and three others of "Amos Ceeg," thirty-three others of 
Londonderry, (among whom were James Rogers, Joseph Scobey 
and Matthew Thornton), six others of Chester, six of Haver- 
hill, two of Kingston, and eight of Litchfield petitioned the 
Masonian Proprietors for the grant of a township, six miles 

(N. H. State papers. Vol. XXV. p. 187.) 

On the eighth of October, 1748, these petitioners were author- 


ized to make a survey, but on the twelfth they were notified 
that their grant must be second to that of John Goffe. {Ibid, 
p. 188.) 

On the twenty sixth of the same month, James Rogers, "now 
resident in Bow," and James Pudney, now resident in Peni- 
cook," by their Attorney, represented to the Proprietors, that 
whereas said James Rogers, and six sons, David, Samuel, 
James, Robert, Richard and John, the said Joseph and six 
sons, John, Joseph, William, Henry, Asa, and Obadiah, had 
purchased a lot of land, 2190 acres, and had improved jointly 
about 98 acres of meadow and about 100 acres of up land and 
"had two dwelling-houses, two barns and two orchards," the 
houses "built about nine years past": and that "in April last 
ye Indians burnt and destroyed said houses and barns and cut 
down ye orchards, and killed a heifer and a steer belonging 
to said James Rogers," etc., "wherefore (referring to deed from 
Lovewell) they prayed to be included as fourteen persons 
among the grantees and the 2190 acres assigned to them as 
their full share." (Ibid.) 

However, others claimed a part of the 2190 acres, claimed by 
Rogers and Pudney. (Ibid, 192.) 

On Dec. 17, 1748, the Proprietors granted a township to the 
petitioners, among them : 

James Rogers of Londonderry, who had No. 10, R. 4, and 
the north half of No. 1, in the same range. 

James Rogers of Bow, who had No. 7, R. 6, and the north 
half of No. 6, R. 5. 

Joseph Pudney of Pennicook, who had No. 6, R. 6, and the 
north half of No. 6, R. 5. 

"And the eldest sons of said Joseph Pudney and James 
Rogers, both one share equally," and they had No. 8, R. 6, and 
the south half of No. 8, R. 5. (Ibid, pp. 198-208.) 

Some of the grantees having forfeited their shares, the tract 
was regranted March 2, 1752, among others to James Rugers 
of Londonderry * * * * and "to Joseph 

Pudney, James Rogers and their eldest sons for one right, all 


living on the tract of land hereby granted," etc. {Ibid, p. 205.) 

On Jan'y 1, 1748-9, James Rogers of Londonderry conveyed 

to James McGregor all his right in this township. (Bk. 38, 

P. '75-) 

On June 10, 1752, Joseph Pudney of Starkstown conveyed to 
James Rogers of Starkstown his one-half of lot 6, R. 5 ; and by 
another deed on the same day "all our possessions" (described 
in detail). (Bk. 43, pp. 124 125.) 

And on the >ame day Rogers conveyed land in Starkstown to 
Pudney. (Bk. 41, p. 477.) 

On April 7, 1852, Matthew Thornton of Londonderry, and 
on the next day James Ewins of L. conveyed land in Starks- 
town to 'James Rodgers of Starkstown." 

As James Rodgers went from Methuen, Mass., in 1739, to 
Starkstown (now Dunbarton) with his six sons, it is quite prob- 
able that his children, or some of them, were born in Methuen. 
He lived in S. till his death, except about a year when he lived 
in Bow. He was accidentally shot and killed late in 1752, or 
early in 1753 ; his widow, Mary, was appointed administratrix 
on his estate, June 25, 1753, (Vol. XIII, p. 67.) 

Their children were Daniel, Samuel, James, Robert, Richard, 
John and Catherine, (3). 

Daniel removed to Dunbarton ; he was appointed chairman 
of a committee of the proprietors, Dec. 29, 1773. 

Samuel settled in Bow, ahout 1758. 

Robert was the celebrated "Ranger," who did great service in 
the French and Indian war ; in the Revolution he became a 
loyalist and went to England in 1777 ; in 1778, he was banished 
from New Hampshire by an act of the Legislature ; and on 
Mar. 4, 1778, his wife was divorced from him by the same 
authority; he died in England about 1800 ;* his son Arthur (his 
only child as far as I have ascertained) "lived with his mother 
many years on the family farm near Concord," and died in 
Portsmouth, in 1841. In a deed dated in 1754, Robert is de- 

*Major Rogers doubtless died several years before that date, probably in 1784- 
See "Roger's Ranger and Loyalist," by Walter Rogers, Esq., London. The Editor. 


scribed as of Merrimack, and in one in 1762 as of Portsmouth. 
Richard was also in the "Ranger" service ; he was First Lieu- 
tenant under his brother Robert in 1756, and was sent to Bos- 
ton with despatches ; later in the same year, Richard was ap- 
pointed Captain of a second company of Rangers, which did 
efficient service during that fall and winter ; he was later 
stationed at Fort William Henry and died there of small-pox a 
few days betore it was attacked by the French and Indians ; his 
brother (Major Robert) in his diary says, that after the capture 
of the Fort, Richard's body was dug up and scalped. 

jfames was also in the service as a "Ranger;" he was Ensign 
in one of the new companies formed in 1756 ; was in the famous 
expedition to Fort George, in Jan'y, 1757, under Major Robert, 
his brother ; was promoted to a captaincy, and in a letter, dated 
in 1775, Major Robert speaks of him as "Colonel." 

Deeds (B 59, p. 486, and B. 61, p. 547) show that in 1760 
and 1761, he was at Starkstown; but May 6, 1760, he purchased 
land in Londonderry (B. 61, p. 549) and soon moved there, for 
in deeds dated March 24, 1762, and July 7, 1762, he is described 
as of Londonderry. (B. 64, pp. 502-529.) 

And on Dec. 10, 1762, James Rogers of Londonderry con- 
veyed to Robert Rogers of Portsmouth, land in Suncook con- 
veyed to James Rogers of Starktown by Abraham Kimball, by 
deed dated March 2, 1761, and recorded in Book 61, p. 547. 
(B. 70, p. 311.) 

He married Margaret, daughter of Rev. David McGregor, and 
had born in Londonderry (as shown by the records) : 
David, b. Nov. 7, 1762 \ d. Nov. 2, 1766. 
James, b. Nov. 22, 1764 ; d. young. (4). 
Whether he had other children or not I have not ascertained. 
He is said to have moved to Kent, now Londonderry, Ver- 
mont, in 1774. I have given this detailed account of James 
Rogers because it has been assumed that he belonged to the 
Londonderry family. 

There is no occasion to recapitulate the evidence to satisfy 
the reader that the original James Rogers of Londonderry and 


the first James Rogers of Starktown (Dunbarton) were two dif- 
ferent men. 


1. Page 97. The terra "Scotch-Irish" has of late been objected to very vehemently; 
but it has been in use so long and to such an extent with a well-understood meaning, 
that it is too late to object to it; the objectors seem to forget that the people make 
words and give them their meaning and that the sole office of the dictionary-maker is 
simply to record what the people have done in this respect. As early as 1708, in the 
record of Glasgow University, Rev. Robert Rutherford is styled a •'Scotch-Irishman" 

2 Page 9t>. I have no evidence that Hugh was the brother of James, except 

3. Page 104. Since the first publication of this article, 1 have had correspondence 
with Dr. Edmund J. A. Rogers of Colorado, a descendant of James 1, of Dunbarton' 
through James, 2, and born on the homestead established by the latter in Ontario' 
who says that the first James Rogers of Dunbarton and his wife, Mary McPhartridge 
had two daughters in addition to those given by me, Mary who married James Blair, 
and Martha, who married John Miller. He says further that Daniel went to sea and 
was drowned off Cuba, leaving a family in New Hampshire, and that Catherine mar- 
ried Frank Miller. 

I also find a deed on record in Hillsborough County (Book 21, p. 342) dated April 
16, 1787, by which David, Robert, James and Alexander Blair, all of Londonderry, 
conveyed all their interest in the estate of their grandfather, James Rogers of 

4. Page 105. These two children of James and Margaret [McGregor] Rogers died 
young, but they had at least one other son, David McGiegor Rogers, born about 1771, 
who died in 1824, aged 53, whose tombstone is still standing on the homestead in 

Col. James removed to Vermont before 1770, and lived thereuntil 1784, when he 
moved to Fredericksburgh, Ontario, which had been allotted to him and the loyalists 
under his command, where he settled and spent the remainder of his life, dying in 
1792. He was succeeded by his son, David McGregor Rogers, who represented his 
district twenty-four years in the Assembly of Upper Canada. 

I am indebted also to Dr. Rogers for a pamphlet containing an article prepared by 
his brother, Walter Rogers, Esq., Barrister of the Queen's Temple, London, England, 
published in the Transactions of the Roger Society of Canada, and also published 

/Ov /^jX^Xyi^yt^ULA^O-X^^C^^ 

Josiah H. Drummond. 

Hon. Josiah Hayden 
Drummond, LL. D., the 
author of the preceding 
article, "The Two James 
Rogers," which imparts 
certain facts not known 
to previous historians re- 
garding one of the most 
important of the early 
families in this vicinity, 
was born in Winslow, 
Me., August 30, 1827, 
and died very suddenly 
of heart trouble in Port- 
land, October 25, 1902. 
He was educated in the 
Waterville College, now 
Colby University, gradu- 
ating in 1846 at the age of nineteen. He taught school in dif- 
ferent towns, and studied law with Hon. Timothy Boutelle of 
Waterville, and was admitted to the bar in 1850. After taking 
a trip to California, he began the practice of law in Waterville, 
where he remained until he removed to Portland in i860, en- 
tering upon a practice here which became extensive and lucra- 
tive. Meanwhile he had become prominent in politics, and 
serving as city solicitor, he was elected to the state legislature 
in 1857, from which body he was chosen speaker. In i860 he 
was elected to the state senate, but resigned before he had com- 
pleted his term of office that he might accept the position of 
Attorney General. He held this office for four years. He was 
a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1864, 


1876, 1884. In 1865 ne was chosen a director of the Maine 
Central Railroad, which position he held until his death, and 
since 1876 he was director and general counsellor of the Union 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, giving much of his time to 
perfecting the work of this association. His Alma Maier, in 
187 1, conferred npon him the degree of LL. D. 

Besides becoming prominent in legal and political circles he 
became one of America's most widely known Masons, attaining 
possibly greater Masonic distinction than any other man. Ever 
wielding a fluent and incisive pen he won for himself a place in 
the front ranks of the writers of the order, and was acknowl- 
edged to be the greatest living authority on Masonry. To 
enumerate his Masonic honors would be to name nearly every 
title known to the craft, for "since the Deacon's rod was placed 
in his hands he has never been free from office." 

He was an industrious collector of books, not only those per- 
taining to his cherished order, but his library was filled with 
works upon history and genealogy. In this field he showed the 
same faithfulness and painstaking care that he did in the 
others, and his writings have proved both accurate and com- 
plete. Among his works of this nature may be mentioned 
"John Rogers of Marshfield," "John Rogers of Plymouth," and 
"The Descendants of John Bean of Exeter," besides many 
others, not the least among which is "The Two James Rogers," 
written a few years since for Gould's Notes and Queries, and 
from which we republish it with the author's revisions and notes. 

The Masonic Journal in summing up his character says : 
"He was an eminent citizen, a distinguished member of the 
bar, an active politician ; he was more — he was better than a 
lawyer, better than a politician ; he was a born leader. There 
was to his life a fullness and completeness seldom seen ; he held 
high official positions, and might have held more ; twice he de 
clined a seat on the Supreme bench and once a nomination of 
candidate for governor of the state, when the nomination was 
equivalent to election, but he chose to pass them by, preferring 
the practice of his profession, in which he stood in the front 


rank. His disposition was destitute of vindictiveness and in- 
capable of malice. His life was devoted to the work of making 
others happy. His home life was especially beautiful ; in the 
bonds of sincere affection all of his household were united in 
seeking, not only to be happy, but to contribute happiness. 
His golden wedding was celebrated December 10, 1900. The 
celebration did not, however, differ materially from the preced- 
ing anniversaries, for it had been his invariable custom to de- 
vote the 10th day of December to his family, making no ap- 
pointments that would prevent his so doing. He had a rule 
"not to carry shop to his home," and the happiest moment of 
his office hours was the time for gathering the accumulated 
Masonic, genealogic and social correspondence of the day into 
a bundle for evening consideration. The number of his parcels 
was usually increased by a call at the confectioner's on his way 
home, where at his table near the east window of the living 
room, he found that rest of mind that comes from change of 
labor. His evenings were usually spent at home, never in idle- 
ness, but occupied in solving some intricate mathematical prob- 
lem, genealogic compilation or Masonic correspondence, ever, 
apparently, cheerfully willing to lay all aside for a game of whist 
with the children or to entertain a visitor. His versatility was 
so great that interruption never appeared to be an annoyance." 
The funeral services, which were both religious and Masonic, 
were held at the ancient First Parish Church of Portland, and 
his body was borne to its final resting place in Evergreen Ceme- 
tery of that city under conditions both fitting and impressive. 

"The good deeds left behind him 
Will form a chain to bind him 
To us who linger here." 


Derryfleld in the Revolution. 


If difference in religious beliefs had divided the early inhab 
itantsof Derryfleld and made them anything but peaceful neigh- 
bors, there was no lack of harmony shown upon the question 
of their civil liberty. Scotch Presbyterian and English Puritan 
had alike suffered at the hands of the aggressive Royalists, and 
each had been driven from his native land to seek in the wilder 
ness of New England that long-sought privilege of living ac- 
cording to the rigid doctrines of his theological teacher. Some- 
thing of the irony of fate may have been felt by them in unex- 
pectedly meeting in the new world the stern, combatative ele 
ments of a rival denomination, but future generations were to 
prove that it was the divine working of that same mysterious 
Providence which had guided them to this shore. The happy 
combination of the rugged traits possessed by them has pro- 
duced a race that has been a most important factor in the mak- 
ing of the history of the foremost country of the twentieth 

However bitter personal controversies may have risen they 
did not blind them to the menace of common danger, and each 
from his standpoint watched with a zealous eye the steady en- 
croachments of his universal rights by the oppressive sovereign 
of a government that had never known what opposition really 
meant. Derryfleld, without any disunion of sentiment, was among 
the first towns in the province to vote to help carry on the cost 
of preparing to meet the enemy hand to hand should the worst 

At a special meeting held January 16, 1775, the town voted 
unanimously to raise "their equal propoicion of money that shall 


hereafter arise towards paying the cost of the General Court as 
aney other town in the Province." It is difficult to see what 
more Derryfield could do. The 15th of the following May it 
was voted to send a man to the convention to be held the 17th. 
At the same meeting it was voted that Captain Alexander Mac- 
Murphy, Lieutenant James McCalley, Ensign Samuel Moore, 
Eleazer Stevens and John Perham be a "commetty in behalf of 
us." This committee was the original of the Committees of 
Safety that soon followed. 

When the crisis came, suddenly and prematurely, the men of 
Derryfield quickly proved that they were as faithful and prompt 
to act as they had been to promise, and the echoes of the guns 
at Lexington had not ceased their reverberations up and down 
the valleys of the Granite hills before they were on the march 
to cope with the invaders. Stark left the mill log on its car- 
riage and seizing his musket and powder horn, without stopping 
to put on his coat, started for the scene of war. Robert Mc- 
Knight left his ax sticking in the body of the tree he was felling 
and barely stopping to bid his loved ones good bye hastened to 
the defence of his country. Another, whose identity is not 
plain in the mixed accounts of the exciting times, unyoked his 
oxen in the road and followed on the heels of Stark. Others at 
work in their clearings, about their homes or wherever their 
duties had called them, immediately gave up all else and joined 
in this grand rally to help drive from the land the foes of liberty. 

The latest official record at the time credited Derryfield with 
thirty-six able bodied men, and of that number only two re- 
mained behind with the old men and decrepit ones to look after 
affairs at home. The history of the Granite State is a proud 
one, but she has not a town which can match this record. It is 
a pity the names of these patriots have not been preserved, ex- 
cept as they are to be found on the tax list for that year, and 
which is copied from the records, vol. 1, page 284, as follows : 


Conl. John Goffe, John Yand, Esqr. 

Maj. John Moors, Ensin. Samuel Moors, 



James McKnight, 


Nathaniel Merton, 

William Nutt, 

timothy Mertion, 

John Griffen, 

John Griffen, Junr. 

Benjemin Baker, 

Benjemin Baker, Junr. 

Johnathan Merrell. 

Jesse Baker, 

Joseph Gorge, 

Abrham Merrell, 

Abrham Merrell, Junr., 

David Merrell, 

Jospeh Griffen, 

Ezekiel Stavens, 

Joseph farmer, 

Isaac farmer, 


v Sarah Russ, 

Robert Clark, 

John Reay, 


John Stark, 

David farmer, 


James McCalley, 


Samuel Stark, 

Robert McNight, 

David McNight, 

Daniel Blodget, 

Joshua Blodget, 




John Parham, 


William Parham, 

John Parham, 

Ebenezer Coster, 

Charles Eamerson, 

Charles Eamerson, Junr 

Gorge Eamerson, 

John Harvey. 

William Parham, Junr. 

Micheal Mc Clintock, 

James Pairces, 


Alexander me Murphey 


Benjmen Crombie, 

Moses Crombie, 


Samuel Boyd, 


Nathaniel Boyd, 

Widow Margret Boyd, 

John Dickey, 

William Gemble, 

Robert Cuningham, 

David Starret, 

John Hall, 

Daniel Hall, 


Ebnezer Stivns, 

Hugh thompson, 

Benjmen Pilsbury, 

thomas Numan, 

Josep Masten, 

James Lagon, 




Robrt mc Clouer. 

Alexander Irwing, 


Joseph Geor-e Select 

Ceaser Griffen, 

Samuel Stark Men. 

Recorded this 24th day of Decemher, 1775. 

JOHN HALL, Town Clerk. 


An analysis of this list shows that of the 64 names five were 
those of non-residents, and two of women, leaving 57 tax payers, 
many of whom must have been old men and those who were un- 
fitted by disability to bear arms. 

Of the thirty four men who rushed to the front at the first alarm 
twenty-three participated in the battle of Bunker Hill under 
Stark in Captain John Moore's company which was made up 
principally of men from Derryfield, Bedford and Londonderry 

It is one of the singular records of war that though in the thick- 
est of the fight not one was killed. As a witness of the stern 
work they did on that memorable day ninety-six of the enemy 
were found dead or disabled on the battlefield in front of their 

During the cessation of hostilities which succeeded this san- 
guinary battle about half of these men returned to their homes, 
but it proved even then not enough of the town officers were 
present to transact business. At a special meeting on August 
11, two selectmen, David Starrett and Samuel Stark, were 
chosen 'in room of those gone to the war." At the same meet- 
ing it was voted not to send a delegate to the congress at Exe- 
ter. The report of the selectmen to the Committee on Safety 
made in September of that year shows that there were still six- 
teen men in the army. These, says Potter, were doubtless at 
Winter's Hill There were twenty firelocks in town at the time, 
but no ammunition. The report adds, "There is 20 more men 
in Said Town fit to Bare Arms." 

June 1, 1776, every man in Derryfield able to perform mil- 
itary duty signed the declaration of fidelity to the cause of the 
colonists demanded by the Committee of Safety, while at this 
time the following men were in the army : Colonel John Stark, 
Captain John Moore, Captain James McCalley, Captain Alex- 
ander MacMurphy, Captain Nathaniel Martin, Nathaniel Baker, 
Timothy Dow, Benjamin Baker, Samuel Harvey and Ebeneezer 
Costa. Colonel Stark was with his regiment on the expedition 
to Canada, and following the retreat of this disastrous cam- 
paign, General Gates placed him at the head of a brigade. 


Soon after he was ordered to join Washington in Philadelphia 
with his regiment. There he was assigned to Sullivan's divi 
sion and in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, as they had at 
Bunker Hill, it was the men of the Merrimack valley who bore 
the brunt of battle and won more than their share of the results, 
and foremost among them were the sons of Derryfield. General 
Sullivan in a letter to Hon. Mesech Weare, Chairman of the 
Committee on Safety, said : "Believe me, sir, the Yankees 
took Trenton before the other troops knew anything of the mat- 
ter !" The Derryfield soldiers belonged to the company of 
Capt. Eben Frye of Pembroke, but were assigned to the com- 
mand of Sergt. Ephraim Stevens of this town, under whose lead 
a mere handful of sixteen men captured sixty Hessians and 
marched them triumphantly to headquarters. 

In the necessity of obtaining more men for the colonial ser- 
vice immediately after the battle of Princeton Stark returned to 
New Hampshire to recruit another regiment from a field already 
so closely culled that only he could have succeeded. But in 
the midst of his heroic efforts his enemies were at work against 
him and the trouble followed which caused him to leave the 
army and retire to his home at Amoskeag, until at the urgent 
request of his friends and fellow patriots he consented to lead 
our troops in the rescue at Bennington. These scenes have 
been so fully described in the life sketch of Siark and the bat- 
tle of Bennington given elsewhere in these collections that it is 
/lot necessary to enter into the details here. The biography of 
John Stark and the history of Derryfield for those years are 
very closely interwoven. 

While her soldiers were battling at the front so manfully for 
the cause of independence, those at home were having scarcely 
less serious efforts toward help carrying on the war. Relative 
to the matter of bounty for soldiers the records show the follow- 
ing warrant and action in regard to the same : 

"These are to notify and warn all the inhabitants of the town 
of Derryfield lawfully qualified to vote in Town Meetings to as- 
semble and meet at the meeting house in said Derryfield upon 


Monday the second day of April next at ten of the clock 
before noon, then and there to act on the following particu- 
lars, viz. : 

"1 ly to choose a Moderator for the regulating said meet. 
"2 ly to consult and agree upon some effectual method 
to raise the proportion of men required by authority to be 
raised by said town, for carrying on the present war in which 
we are engaged, &c , &c. 
March the 31th day, 1777. 

"Benjamin Crombie, 
"Ebenezer Stevens, 


Derryfield, April the 2d day, 1777. 
Then meet agreeable to the above notification and voted 
Col. John Stark Moderator of said Meeting, then voted to 
pay men that engages into the Conteneentel Services for sd 
Town as a Bounty fifty dollars per man. Afterwards voted 
eighty dollars per man in lue of fifty. 

"Voted the present Selectmen collect the above money of 
the free holders in said Town or borrow the above money if 
demanded before it can be collected. 
"Recorded this 3d day of April, 1777. 

"David Starrett, 
"Town Clerk." 

At a special meeting June 2, 1777, a movement "failed to 
settle and give credit to those persons that has done duty and 
advanced some money towards carrying on this unnatural war 
since beginning of Hostilities to this, so that the whole costs of 
said ware may be squarely proportioned according to pols and 
Estates." At this meeting it was voted Col. John Stark, Cap- 
tain William Perham, John Harvey, David Starret and James 
Pierce a committee to regulate and state the prices of things 
not mentioned in the Regulation Act. Agreeable to vote we 
find that a tax was levied upon the male polls amounting to 
132 ilbs. 13s. 4d. "to discharge the bounty of five men who en- 
listed in the Continental Army for three years." Again it was 
voted at a special meeting "to care for the family of Robert Mc- 
Knight," who was a three years' soldier. May 26, 1778, it was 
voted "to have the one-half of fifty two Pounds of Powder from 


David Starrett for a Town Stock of Powder which the said 
Starrett purchased on his own cost in Exeter at nine shillings 
per pound." In the stress of obtaining recruits in the closing 
years of the war we find it voted, May 22, 1780, that "the 
Militia Officers together with the Selectmen shall provide or 
git by hiersutch Soldiers as shall frum time to time be called for 
as our cota towards carrying on the war. as cheap and in the 
best manner they can and the charge of said hier. if they can- 
not be got by Enlistment to be paid by a rate that shall be 
levied on the polls and estates of the inhabitants of the Town." 

"Feb. 13, 1781, voted that the expense of the war shall be de- 
frayed by a town tax levied on the polls and Estates. 

"Voted that a committee consisting of Samuel Moore, John 
Hall, Joseph Sanders to hire such men to serve in the Conti- 
nental army for 3 years as called for and secure them for 
such pay as they may engage as soldiers. 

"Voted all who engage in the public Survice be cleared from 
paing aney poll tax for the space of one year after there return. 

March 22 1781. 

"Voted on 3d article in the warrant to allow six hard dollars 
per Month, for three months that they sent a Soldier into the 
service the year past or the value thereof in paper money. 

"Voted on 5th article in the warrant not to have any Scouting 
this year." 

The value of money for this year is illustrated in the allow- 
ance of $1000. to John Hall for "extraordinay services as 
constable." In the warrant for a special meeting called for 
July 12, 1781, the second article runs: 

In as mutch as there hath bin a very suden and unexpected 
revelution respecting the old Continantal money sence the Rates 
were made, and the money raised to purchas Beef for the Army 
doth not answare the eand desired, there fore to see what we 
the Town will vote to make of said money raised to purchas 
Beef and also to see what method the town will take to purchas 
said Beef for the Army, which is wanted immediately. 

Voted upon this article that the three Selectmen shall divide 
the Town into three classes in order to provide the Beef for the 


Army, and that eatch class shall furnish there equiel proportion 
of said Beef and each person shall be equielly assed according 
to Pole and estate, and that said Beef shall be delivered to the 
Selectmen who is head of his class. 

Voted that eatch man that hath paid this Beef tax to Mr, 
Joseph Farmer Constable may have leave to take his money 
back again when demanded, providing this was done within 7 

The weight of the beef purchased for the army for this year. 
178 1, is recorded as 3105 pounds, and the cost of purchasing 
said beef 108 pounds. The amount bought tor 1780 was 3720 
pounds and the cost paid Jonathan Russ for buying same was 
294 pounds. The rates for 1782 were as follows: Soldier 
rate Sojbs. 10s. 4d., which was doubled before the year ended, 
town rate, 49ilbs. 2s. nd., continental and state rate, 249lbs. 
2s. 3d., minister rate, i61bs. os. 3d., Silver rate for interest, 
5lbs. os. 1 id., New Emission rate, 92IDS. 8s. 3d., a burden of 
taxation the inhabitants bore with commendable fortitude. 
There was still a backwardness in paying the soldiers the 
money due them and on March 16, 1784, we find it voted to 
pay them "the money they have not received." December 8, 
1794, it is recorded that the bounty of the Minute Men "be 
$1. when enlisted, $1. when passed muster, $1 when they march 
and $8. per month with cong. amt." Once more and for the 
last time the records refer to the matter, when, October 13, 
1807, it was voted to raise one hundred dollars if the soldiers 
be called for as bounty. Voted the town give the Soldiers two 
Gallons of West India Rum who turned out in defense of the 
country." It goes without saying that through all the vicissi- 
tudes of the long and sanguinary struggle for the country's in- 
dependence, whether with the men whom she sent to the brunt 
of battle or those who met the arduous duties at home, old 
Derryfield was never for a moment faithless to her trust. 

Major John Webster, 



DECEMBER II, 1 888. 

"Then marched the brave from rocky steep, 
From mountain river, swift and cold; 

The borders of the stormy deep, 

The vale where gathered waters sleep, 
Send up the strong and bold." 

Among many obscure individuals whose names are not in- 
scribed on marble tablets, or placed conspicuously in the ar- 
chives of state, the name of Major John Webster should occupy 
a prominent position. Israel Webster, the father of John, came 
to this country from England and settled in the town of Atkin- 
son, where John was born, in the year 1736. Inured to the pri- 
vations and hardships of a pioneer life, in his early manhood 
having seen service in the French and Indian wars, he was well 
fitted for those arduous duties which devolved upon him after- 
wards, during the American revolution. As it would be impos- 
sible in the brief space allotted me to give an extended account 
of our hero, however, if I should succeed in calling the attention 
of any person to a more complete explanation of a character so 
full of the love of liberty, or should refresh the memory of a 
generation who have almost passed away, and who was person- 
ally conversant with Mr. Webster, then, indeed, this slight epi- 
tome may not prove wholly in vain. 

When the news reached Atkinson of the advance of the British 
to Concord, Mr. Webster was at work in his field plowing. Un- 
like the noble Roman Cincinnatus, who left his plow at rest in 
the furrow, he said to his eldest son, a youth of thirteen years, 


"Israel, you take the handles of the plow," and to the next young- 
est son, "David, you take the goad and drive the oxen. I must 
go, for my country calls for me." Mr. Webster went to the house 
and informed his wife of the resolution, who immediately fur- 
nished him with a knapsack, and filled it with provision, and 
other articles he would want, and then he started for Boston 
with some of his townsmen, and reported for duty. Many out- 
rages were committed by the British soldiers upon the defenseless 
inhabitants, which he witnessed, and years afterwards he would 
relate to his friends and those about him, how his blood boiled 
in his veins for vengeance against such atrocious acts of the 

Mr. Webster continued for a short period near Boston, when 
he returned home to enlist men for the American army. He 
was a lieutenant in a company of militia in his native town, 
commanded by Captain Poor, who was a tory and would not 
call his company together. But Lieutenant Webster took 
the responsibility upon himself and enlisted many soldiers for 
the war He was in the Battle of Bunker Hill, under General 
Stark, and occupied a prominent position. He was on terms of 
intimacy with the general, who put much confidence in him and 
entrusted him with many important commissions. He was also 
at the battle of Bennington with his company in 1777, and ren- 
dered efficient service ; was offered a commission by congress, 
but on account of his family affairs, he could not accept it. In 
all the campaigns against General Burgoyne he took an active 
part, witnessed his surrender at Saratoga, and was present when 
Burgoyne delivered his sword to the American general. In 
after years he often related the incident that the tears ran down 
the cheeks of the haughty Briton on that occasion. 

Major Webster was with our army in its encampment in New 
Jersey when the soldiers suffered so much from the inclemency 
of the weather and endured many privations, and witnessed 
many trying scenes which never faded from his memory. He 
participated in many of the battles in that region. Near the 
close of the war, or in 1782, Major Webster bought in Derry- 


field, or what is now Manchester, some land and mill privileges, 
since known as the Webster mills, on the outlet of Lake Mas- 
sabesic, but a short distance from the present pumping station 
of the Manchester water works. Here he lived many years, 
surrounded by his children and grandchildren. Some of his 
his descendants of the fourth generation served their country in 
the late rebellion, and gave their lives as a sacrifice on our 
country's altar for liberty. As Major Webster lived but a short 
distance from General Stark and in the same town they often 
exchanged visits with each other, and related the scenes through 
which they passed; of the hair-breadth escapes and privations, 
interspersed with anecdotes full of mirth. 

Major Webster was a kind, genial Christian gentleman Like 
one of old, he erected an altar where he went three times a day 
and offered his prayers to Almighty God. This altar was under 
some large trees near his residence, and for many years when 
the weather would permit, he was seen to go and offer his peti- 
tions. Major Webster lived to be a nonogenarian and died in 
the year 1827, aged 91 years. 

In one of the suburban cemeteries of the city of Manchester 
may be seen the grave of the departed hero, beneath the humble 
mound covered with grass he rests. If the name of Major 
Webster is not inscribed on monumental shaft or obelisk, still 
the principles he espoused will be handed down in history in all 
coming time, and we should do honor to all those worthy heroes 
by remembering their noble deeds. 



At the beginning, so far as white folks are concerned, it was 
a pond and nothing more, defined by Webster as a body of 
water somewhat less than a lake. The Indians, who probably 
first discovered and appreciated its uses, may have called it 
"great water," which may well be interpreted "lake/ 7 Potter 
in his history of Manchester gives it thus: "Massa nipe sauke, 77 
and Charles Bell, in the history of Chester, writing previous 
to 1856, has "Massa peseag 77 — great water. A writer in Wil- 
ley 7 s Book of Nutfield says Massabesic is from "Massa, or, as 
it is sometimes expressed, msi (large) or matnsi (vast), and 
nebe (lake or pond) and ik, which gives it its local term.' 7 
Thus the historians all profess to derive their interpretation 
from Eolle's dictionary of the Abernaque tongue. 

Mr. William Graham of Auburn, born in 1776, and familiar- 
ly known as "Old Grimes/ 7 writing in 1860, says: "Indians 
plenty round the great pond. Deacon Leach of the Presby- 
terian church in Cheshire sold rum in those days. One little 
Indian came out from great island, called Deer island, wanted 
some occupee. 'Who for? 7 said the deacon. 'Massa be sick, 
want it for him. 7 That 7 s the origin of the name to the great 
and little pond. 77 It is said that Massa died and was buried 
on the island. 

This story seemed probable enough to be adopted by the 
popular fancy. As there are, however, several ponds by that 
name in other states of the Union, and as "Massabeseck 77 is 
found on old deeds much antedating the time of Mr. Grimes's 
story, it will have to be thrown out of court. 



At all events, Massabesic is a good name, as sings our well- 
known local poetess, Mrs. Clara B. Heath, who has lived near 
its beautiful shores. 

"One legacy they left thee, was it chance? 
A quaintly sounding name most dear to me, 
That seems to whisper of some old romance, 
Some pleasant tale blown over from far seas. 

Two broad blue bays, that stretch out east and west, 
Dotted with fairy isles of living green, 
And midway where the waters seem to rest 
In narrow bed two curving shores between 
A time-worn bridge that long has stood the test 
Of stormy winds and restless tides is seen." 

Thai this admiration is not a mere matter of local pride, the 
words of Mrs. Harriet Prescott Spofford in a story written for 
the Atlantic Monthly some years since will show. She says: 
"Among the many lakes in Xew Hampshire there is one of 
extreme beauty. A broad shadowy water some nine miles in 
length, with steep thickly wooded banks, and here and there as 
if moored on its calm surface an island, fit for a bower of 

Other than this little or nothing of legendary lore has come 
down to us from its shores. Thoreau once came within reach 
of the Massabesic, but his ship passed by, just lapping the wa- 
ters of the Coh as, and he spun no web about its unconscious 
waves. The two well-defined sheets of which the lake consist- 
are very irregular in shape, and if joined end to end would 
measure ahout seven miles in length by one mile in width. 
The eastern division, with ahout one half of the other, is 
within tin 1 boundaries of Auburn. The shores are varied and 
picturesque. Numerous beaches strewn with line white sand 
furnish material much prized by housewives in old time for 



scouring purposes, and until superseded by modern invention, 
for the finish of plastered walls. Chase remarks that these 
beaches were much prized as places for bleaching the fine Irish 
linen woven by the early settlers. Several years since, perhaps 
fifty or more, a glass factory was built at Suncook and sand 
drawn from the Massabesic for the manufacture of window 
glass, and I remember well how astonished we academy schol- 
ars were to see the distended cheek of the blowers and the 


....■ i ■ *i: 

" ^''"^ ■■'■«,"' : .,.-;:o-v-.-'-; •,.?;,<■■'■•:■ 


molten globes of red hot glass swinging over their heads 
This was probably not a paying venture and was soon discon- 

Connecting the beaches rocky shores extend, piled high 
with boulders indicative of old-time storms and winds, echoes 
of which to this day greet the luckless voyager who happens 
to be out in his frail canoe or cranky sailboat. Wooded slopes 



run down to the water's edge; luxuriant vines cluster on fine 
old trees; the scent of the wild grape perfumes the autumn 
groves. The bear found his favorite high blueberry in shel- 
tered dells; wild geese rested here in their long fights hither 
and yon, and great flocks of ducks found free ports of entry in 
many a safe retreat. Deer browsed in the surrounding for- 
ests; the lordly loon trumpeted his defiance in the lee of his 
chosen islands or disappeared with lightning celerity at the 
crack of the rifle. Acres of flooded marshlands furnished 



feeding grounds for pickerel or perch. Alewives crowded in 
shoals up the Cohas in the season, and suckers abounded when 
the winter snows moved off. 

There are numerous islands, but only one of any great value. 
The largest, Deer island, seventy acres in extent, was sold to 
Joseph Brown of Auburn by the late Judge Samuel D. Bell in 
1820, and until the present year was owned by Dr. James F. 


Brown of this city. Judge Bell claimed ownership of the 
pond and its beaches to high-water mark. The claim was 
found not to be good in law, but to avoid litigation the city, 
by its water board, paid $2,000 for whatever right Judge Bell 
had. An Indian tribe is said to have lived on the island and 
left marks of occupation visible fifty years since (Bell, History 
of Chester). In the middle of the last century or thereabout 
valuable pine lumber was drawn by sled across the lake in win- 
ter to await the opening of navigation on the Merrimack. 

Opposite Deer island is a triangular piece of land of con- 
siderable extent called in early times Papoose island, later 
known as Fletcher's. It was, however, a part of the main land, 
but when the water commission built a dam at the outlet of 
the lake, the low lands about were so flooded that it had to 
be reached by a bridge. This bridge was built by the brothers 
Fletcher, who also built a carriage way from the Proctor road 
and fitted the grounds for pleasure resorts. 

The larger of the two sheets comprising the lake contains 
1,370 acres, and the smaller 1,130. In depth it is rather shal- 
low, and is said on no particular authority to measure 50 feet 
off Battery point. The sources of supply to so large a body of 
water are not at first sight visible. It will be noticed, how- 
ever, that the surrounding territory is of considerable height. 
The lake, according the Hitchcock's survey, being 256 feet 
above the level of the sea, and at Maple falls mill dam in Can- 
dia, 407, and in other affluents in Manchester and Hooksett 
still higher. More recent surveys by the United States gov- 
ernment make this estimate seven or eight feet too high. 

The watershed line runs through Northwood to Saddleback 
mountain, south of west through Deerfield to Aliens town line 
near Shingle ponds, then on a course through southwest part 
of Candia to Patten's hill According to the survey in 
Eaton's history of Candia and the map prepared by the late 
ex-Governor Weston and Joseph B. Sawyer, C. E., the visible 
sources are as follows: One stream rises at summit on the dis- 


used track of the Portsmouth & Concord railway in Candia. 
runs nearly northwest to Hooksett line, thence southwest and 
south to Tower hill pond, supplying in its course Maple falls 
and Genessee mills Leaving Tower hill, the stream runs 
through Clark's pond, after which it is augmented hy a stream 
from little Massabesic, bringing water from Murray and Pres- 
ton's mill brooks in Candia. In addition to the above named. 
a small stream rising in Hooksett discharges into the back 
pond, and still another small stream, rising in two sources west 
of the railroad, finds its way into the lake through the Proc- 
tor estate. 

It is estimated to drain a territory of forty square miles, and 
to have a circumference of twenty-nine miles Tradition has 
it that the first settlers learned to use fish manure from the In- 
dians, and that a thousand shad or alewives put on to an acre of 
ground would increase the crop fourfold. The practice was 
followed to such an extent that in 1739 the general court of 
Massachusetts ordered that no bass or cod should be taken for 
manure "except their heads and offals. " The next year an 
article was inserted in the town meeting warrant of Chester, 
"to see if the town would take measures to prevent the killing 
of fish as they come into Massabesic pond any more than what 
is for family support." The use of fish manure seems to have 
caused no little trouble. It is told that a certain good woman 
in the Massabesic region was so scandalized at what she con- 
sidered the inordinate greed of the farmers who planted a 
whole fish with each hill of corn that she prayed for the pun- 
ishment of such waste, whereupon dogs and wolves came and 
dug up corn and all. In connecton with this legend it is 
worthy of notice that the selectmen of Ipswich about the same 
time passed the following: "It is ordered that all dogs for the 
space of three weeks after the publishing hereof shall have 
one legg tied up. If a man refuse to tie up his doggs leggs, 
and he be found scraping fish in the corn field the owner shall 
pay 12s. besides whatever damage the dogge doeth." 



In the history of the lake there have been during the last 
century three taverns at pleasant points along its shores, each 
occupied by guests, and conducted by one proprietor for a suf- 
ficient length of time to be distinguished from the temporary 
eating and drinking resorts by the name of tavern. In the 

year 1800 Mr. Wade Cogswell came from Ipswich, bought a 
lot at the north end of the lake where the turnpike crossed the 
C'andia road, and built what was known in those days as the 
Cogswell house. It was a substantial strongly framed build- 
ing without pretention to any architectural beauty, as will be 
seen from our engraving herewith given. How long it re- 
tained that name does not appear, but in 1844 it was owned 
by Mr. Daniel Merrill and was sold by him in 1845 to Mr. 
Edward P. Offutt. Mr. Merrill is said to have began some 


changes and improvements in the building, but by reason of 
unsteady habits was unable to complete his plans. He died 
soon after, leaving two daughters named Hannah and Ruhama, 
estimable members of the First Congregational church who 
boarded for awhile in the family of our president, Mr. Her- 
rick. Mr. Offutt came to Manchester from Lowell, Mass., in 
1839, and established a furniture and crockery establishment 
at 31 Elm street, now 959 (?). He began changes and im- 
provements in the house, stables were added, a hall for parties, 
for Sunday services and for political meetings was built, a 
miniature park was laid out on the approach to the lake, trees 
set, the low lands about drained and brought under cultivation, 
and a small steamer called the "Gem of the Lake" was 
launched. A zoo was started for the amusement of the chil- 
dren wherein was a mother goat and her sportive kids, a sober 
and sagacious donkey, sundry strange fowls, parrots in cages, 
and an occasional melancholy monkey. 

Mr. Offutt was an enterprising man, and in addition to his 
hotel property acquired the place known as the Oswego mill, 
where machinery was introduced for sawing shingles and for 
planing, and houses were erected for the use of workmen. 
This was where the stream from Tower hill pond crosses the 
Candia road. The dam, however, which was some years pre- 
vious washed away in a. freshet, again gave out, and no vestige 
of the settlement now remains. It is probable that Mr. Offutt 
had too many kinds of business on his hands to make a suc- 
cessful landlord. At any rate, the Massabesic house is not sup- 
posed to have proved a profitable investment, though well 
patronized at times. Mr. Offutt died February 2, 1870, sur- 
vived by his widow and five children, now living. His widow, 
a most estimable lady, at this time of writing ninety-one years 
of age, is held in kindly remembrance by dwellers about this 
lake shore for her interest in Sunday school work and for her 
compositions in poetic form with which she entertained her 


classes. She has since occasionally sent to her friends a birth- 
day poem.* 

In 1882 the house and accompanying land was sold to 
Charles Williams and is still owned by his heirs. It was leased 
by various parties at different times, but failed to recover any 
great amount of patronage, and on the 14th of May, 1903, the 
Massabesic house was totally destroyed by tire, undoubtedly 
the work of an incendiary, as it had been closed all the pre- 
vious season for the first time in many years. 

Next in point of time and first in its commanding view of 
the lake was Folsom's in Auburn, on the Londonderry turn- 
pike. From the rear of the house the land sloped gradually 
to the water's edge. Off the shore at no great distance the 
green forests of Deer Isle were in full sight, and across the 
deep blue of the waters the view reaches on to the mountain 
heights, northwest of Manchester. 

This tavern, as shown in our half-tone, was built by John 
Folsom in 1806. Mr. Folsom was born in Newmarket March 
11, 1776. The family soon after moved to Harrisburg, Pa., 
where the father engaged in nail making. In 1792 they re- 
turned to New Hampshire and settled in Chester, near the chief 
affluent of the lake. Here Mr. Folsom bought the fulling mill 
of Joseph Blanchard and installed his machinery for nail mak- 
ing. In 1805 John Folsom and John Melvin took a contract 
to build fifteen miles of turnpike from Hooksett bridge, and 
also the bridge at the straits, or Deer neck. For the bridge Mr. 
Folsom was allowed one thousand dollars. At this time he 
bought lot ninety-eight, second part, second divison, upon 
which the tavern was built. The picture given here is a very 
good representation of the house as it appeared fifty years ago, 
as the writer can testify, having experienced its hospitality 

♦Mrs. Ann M. Offutt died at her Lome, 310 Chestnut Street, February 20, 1904. 
she was the oldest member of the Merrimack-street Baptist church and was a 
member of the Manchester old Residents association and of the W. C. T. r. She 
leaves three sons.Willard C. Offutt of Savannah. Ga.,'and E. Howard and Albert 
K. Offutt of this city; two daughters, Mrs. Annie M. French of Hazardville, Ct., 
and Mrs. Ella J. Wheeler of this city; eight grandchildren and a great-grand- 




% % 

'»*-•> ; ; & ;„r :,;.:-:;., " 


while teaching a winter school in that district. Judge Folsom 
was a man of mark in that day, standing for much that is 
strongest and best in our New England character. He was 
one of the judges of a court of sessions established in 1820, lay- 
ing out roads, auditing accounts, etc. He was made a deacon 
or elder in the Presbyterian church in 1833, represented Ches- 
ter in the legislature of 1809, and later removed to Derry, from 
which town he was representative several years. He died 
August 9, 1850. 

The hotel ceased to be profitable when the railroad took off 
ihe np-country freight from the turnpike, and its decayed and 
falling timbers have long disappeared. The estate is now 
owned by Mr. Walter M. Parker, who has added to the beauty 
of the original site by extensive improvements. A fine stable 
of brick with stone trimmings is completed, and a summer resi- 
dence to be shortly occupied is well under way. The fine 
photographic view which accompanies this paper will give a 
good idea of the situation as it is today. Mr. Parker, whose 
ample wealth allows him to indulge his taste for the beautiful 
land and water scenery of this region, owns about four hun- 
dred acres on the lake shores, including Battery point. 

The next largest owner of land on the shores of Lake Mas- 
sabesic in Auburn is Mr. Andrew F. Fox, who has been many 
times a selectman in that town, moderator of town meetings, 
and was representative to the general court in 1852-53. 

The Island Pond house was built early in the forties by 
Bradford Beals and Henry C. Joy. They purchased a lot 
on Caesar's beach, an interesting locality, which received its 
name from one Caesar Harvey, of whom more anon. This is 
one of the best beaches about the lake, a quiet, sequestered spot 
with abundant forest growth about, inviting to cool drives in 
summer time and commanding an uninterrupted view north- 
ward across the lake with Birch and Deer or Brown's island on 
the right, and Fletcher's on the left, for nearly three miles to 
the Massabesic house. Not far from the site of the tavern 


may be seen remains of a cellar, and the foundations of what is 
said to have been the birthplace and residence of the com- 
posi r of the music of the "Sweet Bye and Bye," interesting ac- 
count of which may be found on page eighty-one, volume 1, of 
the Manchester Historical Collections. 

Before the completion of the tavern Beals sold to Joy, who 
finished and conducted the establishment successfully for eight 
years. He maintained a fleet of sail and row boats, gave fam- 
ous fish dinners, and was well patronized by city residents, who 
Mere wont to temper their hard work with occasional relaxa- 
tion. The fact that there was a rigorous prohibition law prob- 
ably added to the zest of these occasions, and it not infrequent- 
ly happened that some who zealously voted for the law cheer- 
full}' assisted in breaking it. There were no electric cars at 
that time and it was the heyday of the livery stables. On Sun- 
days and holidays teams were in great demand. Mr. Joy died 
May 2, 1868, and the place was sold to C. M Hubbard, during 
whose ownership the house was burned. Later it was rebuilt 
and owned by Capt. David Perkins, but was finally again de- 
stroyed by fire, and was purchased by the water commission of 
the city of Manchester. 

Jn following up and tracing out the old stories that hang 
about the shores of the lake like last year's robin's nests, it is 
interesting to observe how a tale grows in length and breadth 
until the party who set it in motion would no longer recognize 
it as his own. I had heard, for instance, of Caesar's beach, 
but not where or why. Several persons knew so much but no 
more. After awhile some one said Caesar was a negro. I 
might have interred that, but said, "Good! we are progressing." 
Another said lie was a slave who escaped from Salem before 
slavery was abolished in Massachusetts, which would make the 
time of his coining before 1780. A third said that he was 
brought over by one Captain Harvey from whose name he was 
known as Caesar Harvey, and on escaping from his master's 
control became a squatter at the tail end of the Massabesic. 


Interesting but not conclusive. A fourth (a member of our 
association and therefore entitled to credence) said that Caesar 
built a cabin not far from the site of the Island Pond house, 
married a light colored woman, and had children, one of whom 
was a daughter named Ginger. Now Ginger is said to have 
been at work in a family in that part of the chestnut country 
known as Londonderry, where nothing was known against her 
character except that she was a Methodist, but as she regularly 
attended the Presbyterian meeting, that was overlooked. On 
warm summer days, the doors of the meeting-house stood wide 
open, and while the preacher did his best to keep his congre- 
gation awake, the dogs who had accompanied their owners 
from home occasionally came in, up one aisle, around in front 
of the pulpit, and out at the door by the other. Ginger de- 
clared this sacrilege, and failing to make the elders take heed 
to her remonstrance, provided herself with a long supple 
sprout from the wood nearby, which she deposited unobserved 
at the end of her seat, a modest plank reserved for colored 
sisters. In due time the canine procession entered. As it 
passed Ginger she laid her stick over the backs of the intruders 
with a resounding whack. The yelping that followed thor- 
oughly awakened the congregation. The preacher, who from 
his coigne of vantage o'bserved the whole affair, paused for a 
moment "while ceased the dreadful din," and then went calm- 
ly on with his sixthly. 

Now this seems on the face of it satisfactory, but a fourth 
appears on the scene more extraordinary still. Caesar Harvey 
escaped from Capt. John Smith, presumably at the Isles of 
Shoals, as this is the nearest point that venturous navigator 
ever approached these shores, and he is certainly not re- 
ported to have ventured on the turbulent waves of the Massa- 
besic. I am told that this view of the origin of Caesar Harvey 
was supported by many plausible arguments. Now if this 
theory be true, Caesar Harvey at the time of his advent here 
must have been lively and living in 1614, so that by the time 


the first settlers reached this locality Caesar must have been 
about one hundred and fifty years of age. It is perhaps as well 
to stop here for at this rate we shall get back to the original 
Caesar and imperial Eome. 

At an early date, probably in 1738 or thereabout, John Proc- 
tor came from Ipswich, Mass., to Londonderry. In 1806 his 
son John moved to Derryfield and bought six hundred acres in 
the fourth division south of Cogswell's place, on the west shore 
of the Massabesic. Here he built a house suitable to his pres- 
ent requirements which, as family and means increased, was 
enlarged and improved until the present commodious home, a 
view of which is herewith given, was completed. The late Mr. 
Luther S. Proctor, son of the above-named John 2d, was a 
member of the Manchester Historic association, and a notice 
of his life is given, with portrait on page xxxv, volume 3, of 
the Historic Quarterly. 

As a matter of course those approaches to the Massabesic 
which afforded mill privileges were taken first. The history 
of mills in the region has been partially given by Mr. Huse 
in a previous number of this quarterly, and is fully set forth in 
Chase's "History of Chester" and in Potter's "History of Man- 
chester." For the common use of settlers sawmills, grist and 
fulling mills were needed and soon provided. The late S. C. 
Griffin of Auburn claims that one James Horner built a full- 
ing mill on the site where the Griffin sawmill now is in 1720, 
but as the earliest recorded meeting of the proprietors of Ches- 
ter was in that year it does not seem probable that Horner 
could have purchased a lot and had a mill in operation so soon. 
Moreover, Chase says that the first settlers came not much be- 
fore 1735. "At an adjourned meeting of the proprietors held 
Dec. 11, 1735, A^oted, the land which the Lotlayers Laid out at 
the request of John Calfe for an amendment to two home lots 
and a half held by him, which transcript was read at the last 
Proprietors meeting and put to vote for confermation and past 


in the Negative, was reconsidered and read at this meeting and 
put to vote & Passed in the Effermative." 

This tract of eighty acres lay upon the broo£ flowing from 
little Massabesic into the lake. At the same time it was voted 
that Mr. John Calfe have liberty to build a fulling mill at 
Massabeecek brook between the two ponds agreeable to his own 

At the same meeting it was voted that Mr. John Calfe have 
liberty to build a fulling mill at Massabeecek brook, between 
the two ponds, agreeable to his own proposals. The mill was 
accordingly built, and was said for a long time to have been 
the only fulling mill within a hundred miles. It is among 
the writer's remembrances of a country store that customers 
had to wait for a consignment of full cloth. Twenty-four 
years later Eobert Calfe, son of the above, was granted by vote 
of the proprietors the right to build a sawmill on the "sup- 
posed" privilege granted to his father. For nearly a hundred 
years these mills appear to have answered all demands, until 
the nail factory was started by Folsom, and in 1835 two broth- 
ers, Jay T. and Flag T. Underhill, built a shop for the manu- 
facture of edge tools. For about thirty years the Underbills, 
with various additions and changes in the firm, conducted a 
prosperous business until 1865, when the property was sold to 
Mr. George C. Griffin, and the edge tool business ceased in 
Auburn. Deacon William Leatch, as the name is spelled in 
the old records, came to Chester as early as 1742 and settled on 
lot number seventy-four, second part, second division, which 
is the Emery farm. He will be remembered from his alleged 
connection with the popular origin of the name Massabesic. 
His name also appears on the muster roll of Capt. Joseph 
Dearborn's company, Colonel Wyman's regiment, in the cam- 
paign against Canada in 1776. 

In addition to the places described as taverns earliest in be- 

* In the spelling of this name is there not some probable attempt to imitate 
the Indian pronunciation of the name, as in Bell " Massapeseag"? 


ginning and longest in occupation, are many others in which 
refreshments of various kinds are kept, hut which hardly have 
a name in history as taverns. There are also numerous cot- 
tages occupied in summer by lessees, or used by families most 
of the season. The house at Kimball's point, built by Weeks 
and Currier at an early date, has been occupied for many sum- 
mers by the veteran ex-chief of the fire department, who has 
added to the original lot purchased of Severance, and main- 
tains a beautiful grove of maple and oak between the highway 
and the lake shore. From this point the view is particularly 
pleasing by day and equally fine by night, when the lights of 
the cottagers around many miles of shore are reflected in a 
hundred placid gleams from the Indian mirror, the great wa- 
ter. On the whole the story of Lake Massabesic may be said to 
have been singularly peaceful. The white settlers were mostly 
men of thrift and industrious habits, and the aborigines, if any 
were seen as late as 1720, do not appear to have been particu- 
larly blood-thirsty. Mr. Griffin, the local antiquarian, indeed 
relates a story of murder in which a French officer is mixed 
up with an unhappy Indian bride, who suffers death in con- 
sequence. It is undoubtedly true, however, that one Leret 
Smith and his brother-in-law, John Carr, a youth of eighteen 
years, was captured while building brush fence by a party of 
Indians. They were carried three days' march northward into 
the wilderness, and made their escape, returning unharmed to 
Chester. The scene of this capture is said to have been on 
Mount Misery, an elevation between the two ponds or wings of 
the lake. 

As another instance of the unreliable nature of the evidence 
to be had of these early affairs it may be noticed that Charles 
Bell, in his history of Chester, on the authority of Deacon 
Smith of New Boston, a grandson of Lieutenant Smith, who 
was captured, and who told the story to Rev. Mr. Kellog of 
that town, says that the Indian party making the capture was 
led by Capt. Joe English. As the story of Joe English and his 



devotion to the white settlers is tolerably well known, there is 
evidently a mistake somewhere. 

Our Massabesic is a beautiful lake, even though it has no 
charm like the older lakes of the world, and is not sung by 
bards so many or so great, yet it has come to fill a mission more 
divine, if cleanliness be next to godliness, and health of more 

•^r^ v,:v 


importance than wealth. It may be regarded as nothing less 
than a Providential gift that a body of water so chemically 
pure and so easy of access is found within reach of a growing 
population, whose wants in this direction began to be mani- 
fest as early as 1844. The story in this regard has been well 
told by Dr. Maurice Clark in his history of Manchester, and 
need not be repeated here. It may be said, however, that the 
matter of a pure water supply had been thoroughly discussed 
from 1844 to 1871. The city was then authorized to construct 
water works, at an expense not exceeding six hundred thou- 


sand dollars. The work was undertaken July, 1872, and water 
was conveyed to the city July 4, 1874. In this story there re- 
mains to be struck a note of sadness. Like all things beauti- 
ful or sublime in Nature, there lurks somewhere death to him 
who woos too closely. The adventurous swimmer, the careless 
canoeist, the daring skater, have year by year gone down to 
death beneath those peaceful waves, and such will doubtless 
continue to be the case until it is possible to exercise stricter 
watch over the lake and its habitues. I am told, however, by 
experienced observers, that the number of lives lost here has 
been much less than in most resorts of the kind. 



BER 17, 1902. 

George Washington Morrison was the second son of James 
and Martha Pelton Morrison and was born at Fairlee, Ver- 
mont, October 16, 1809. There were ten children in his fath- 
er's family, seven sons and three daughters; not any of them 
are living at the present time, the last one, a daughter, having 
deceased at Fairlee about two or three years ago. 

Mr. Morrison was of the fourth generation born in this 
country, and came from a noble lineage, which undoubtedly 
transmitted its characteristics from generation to generation 
in a remarkable degree. I have not followed his ancestry be- 
yond its immigration to this country. 

Mr. Samuel Morrison, the progenitor of the family who 
came in the early part of the eighteenth century, was one of 
the colony which settled in Derryfleld. 

Hon. James W. Patterson says in his address on the occa- 
sion of the celebration of the one hundred and fiftieth anni- 
versary of Nutfleld or Londonderry: "The Scotch-Irish settlers 
of this country were a somewhat peculiar people, and unmis- 
takable traces of the original traits survive in their children. 
The warp of their character was Scotch, and the threads were 
as close twisted and strong as hemp; but a hard and varied ex- 
perience under changing governments and fortunes had filled 
in the web with a texture of Celtic die and pattern. They had 
the stern grip and endurance of the old covenanter, mellowed 
by something of the flexibility of the merry-making Irishman. 



They were equally prepared to defend a natural right or a 
point in theology, to 'the last of their kith and their kin,' or 
to make the welkin ring till morning with their hroad but 
pungent wit. . . . 

"Mental and physical qualities are transmitted, but these 
are modified, and special peculiarities created by the conditions 
and events of life. The strength or weakness of the father is 
likely to be the inheritance of the child, and the remembrance 
of a great ancestral achievement will ennoble a whole family. 
The law holds good of races. National health is an element 
of national strength. But. the forces which more than all oth- 
ers impart greatness to a people are purely moral. The par- 
nest and lofty enthusiasm inspired by heroic deeds and high 
endeavor in those whose renown they inherit, the songs they 
sing, the works of art they look upon, the labor of their hands, 
and, above all, the faith in which they worship — determine 
their distinctive characteristics. The songs of ^Eschylus and 
Homer and the glory of Marathon and Thermopylae were the 
seeds of fame which ripened in the peerless intellectual prod- 
ucts and military achievements of the age of Pericles. 

"The English at Waterloo could not break in the tempest- 
uous charge of Ney, for they had the integrity of English his- 
tory to maintain. It was not simply the responsibilities of 
that day, but of all the past of their people, which pressed upon 
and held them like ranks of iron against the impetuous valor 
of France. . . . 

"The substratum of the Scotch-Irish character was laid in 
the stern and stormy life of early Scotch history; but its dis- 
tinctive traits were brought out and confirmed in the long 
and bloody conflicts which they waged in Ireland against ec- 
clesiastical and royal tyranny, after their emigration in 1612. 
Profound convictions, an inflexible will, and strong sensibili- 
ties, were the natural inheritance of those people. They have 
been transmitted from sires into whose mental constitution 
they were wrought by the bitter experience of centuries." 


It is familiar history that the people of our Londonderry are 
descendants of the Scotch Presbyterians, who emigrated from 
Scotland to Ulster, north of Ireland, about the time that the 
Puritans left England for America and for substantially the 
same reasons. In the early part of the eighteenth century 
they came to this country. They have been called Scotch- 
Irish, but were in no sense Irishmen. They were "among 
them but not of them." The two races were entirely distinct 
and separate. The Presbyterians left Scotland as the Puri- 
tans left England, that they might enjoy religious freedom and 
that they might escape the persecutions which they were suf- 

The terrible experience through which they had passed in 
their country in the struggle for power between the Episco- 
pal Church and the Church of Eome for the supremacy had 
prepared them to enlist in the conflict which came for Ameri- 
can independence, and they were among the first to engage in 
the war of the Eevolution. The staunch patriotism and inflex- 
ible adherence to the cause of freedom which characterized the 
men at Bunker Hill and Bennington came from a noble an- 
cestry, and was transmitted to their descendants with unerring 
certainty, and have marked every generation of these people. 

David P. Perkins, Esq., in his excellent sketch of Mr. Mor- 
rison, says that Samuel Morrison was one of the signers for the 
charter for Derryfield, granted September 3, 1751, and was 
known as "Charter Sam/' It is certain that he was in Lon- 
donderry very early in its settlement, which began in 1719. I 
find him taking an active part in the meetings before the town 
proprietors during the years near the date of its charter, and 
there is ground for believing that he was one of the leading 
men of his time. 

"The Morrisons, the McGregors, the Bells, the Pattersons, 
and the Dinsmores" are spoken of as the people who were the 
foremost in settling that part of the country. 


The subject of our sketch was proud of his ancestry, and 
was wont to speak with much feeling of the old Scotch blood 
of which his family was born. 

Mr. Morrison resided with his parents in Fairlee, and his life 
run much the same as other country boys until he was about 
twenty-one years of age. He enjoyed the usual educational 
advantages which the district school of his place afforded, and 
a little later entered the Thetford academy, where he remained 
some four or five months. He was not a very healthy or 
athletic young man, and at times had been somewhat incapaci- 
tated from performing manual labor upon his father's farm. 
It is probable that his delicate health had something to do with 
the decision as to the business in which he should engage. 

In 1830 he entered the office of Hon. Simeon Short of Thet- 
ford and commenced the study of law. After a time he went 
into the office of Judge Presbury West of that place, with 
whom he remained about four years. In reply to an inquiry 
of a lawyer in that vicinity, I received the statement that Mr. 
Morrison very readily acquired a knowledge of office practice 
in Orange county, and was accustomed to take charge of 
Judge West's business in the justice's courts, and to some ex- 
tent, in the county circuit during the time that he was a stu- 
dent, and it was understood that he was very well fitted to be- 
gin the practice of law at the time he asked for admission to 
the bar. 

There arose an objection to his examination by reason of 
the fact that he lacked a few months time under the Vermont 
rule, but the committee knowing of his proficiency, decided to 
give him the examination and that he should he admitted 
when the time limit had been reached, which was done. 

Subsequently, he traveled quite extensively in New York, 
Pennsylvania, and the New England states with a view of se- 
lecting a location for business On his way home, he stopped 
at Amoskeag village in this city for a day or two and became 
impressed with the importance of that place, especially consid- 


ering the water-power as a foundation for the development of 
a large and prosperous town. Learning that a corporation 
had been organized by capitalists in Boston and that it was 
their intention to erect mills at Amoskeag, he decided to 
locate there. In the summer of 1836 he came to Amoskeag 
and opened an office in what has been called the "old school- 
house/^ situated on the road connecting Amoskeag and Pis- 
cataquog villages, a little north of the road leading up from 
McGregor bridge. That section was then a part of Goff stown, 
and I find him spoken of in the New Hampshire registers as 
having resided there until 1841. 

He taught two winter schools and possibly three while 
living there, and it is interesting to know that one of our dis- 
tinguished fellow citizens and antiquarians, Col. G. C Gil- 
more, was one of his pupils. You will not be surprised that 
Mr. Morrison, in speaking of Colonel Gilmore, said that he 
was a very bright and intelligent boy about whom there was 
nothing vicious or wrong, but he was somewhat mischievous, 

In 1841 he moved to this side of the river and took an office 
in what was known as the "Old Ark," on the corner of Amherst 
and Elm streets, a building which was originally erected in 
Goffstown, and taken down and moved to Manchester by Mr. 
John B. Goodwin, and finished into offices and tenements. 

It is well known in the history of Manchester that the first 
sale of lots by the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company took 
place October 24, 1838, and that quite an impetus was given 
to the settlements and business in this section. Mr Morrison 
began to receive a very considerable patronage about that time, 
which increased and probably induced him to come over the 

He formed a partnership with Hon. Moody Currier in 1841 
under the style of Morrison & Currier. Their office was in 
the "Old Ark," and their business was quite successful, but 
the partnership lasted only about two years. In 1845, Judge 


Presbury West, with whom he had been a student as suggested, 
came to Manchester and was associated with him as a partner 
under the name of West & Morrison. They continued togeth- 
er in business about five years. Mr. West was a very able and 
eminent lawyer in the true sense of the word. His practice, 
however, was almost wholly confined to office and advisory 
work, which consisted in the examination of cases, bringing 
suits and preparing them for trial, and giving advice with ref- 
erence to all business matters. 

Sometime in 1847 Mr. West withdrew from the firm and 
moved to Jefferson, N. H. Mr. Morrison soon after formed a 
partnership with John Langdon Fitch under the style of Mor- 
rison cv Fitch, which continued until 1853, at which time the 
late Judge C. W. Stanley, who had been a student in the office 
of Morrison & Fitch, became a member of the firm under the 
name of Morrison, Fitch & Stanley. This continued until 
November, 1857. During that time they moved into Patten's 
block, but in 1856 the building was burned and the firm lost 
nearly everything in the shape of books, records, and all the 
accumulation which comes to a lawyer's office, and they suf- 
fered very severely. 

During the interim, while Patten's block was being rebuilt, 
their office was in the Union block. They had also an office 
in old Town Hall building, over the postofifice, which stood 
about where the city hall now stands. They returned to the 
offices in Patten block, where the various firms with which Mr. 
Morrison was connected remained until his decease. Mr. Fitch 
withdrew in November, 1857, from the firm, by reason of ill 
health. It continued in the name of Morrison & Stanley until 
April, 1860, when Judge Lewis W. Clark, who had been lo- 
cated at Pittsfield, came and united with them and the part- 
nership became Morrison, Stanley cv (dark. That arrange- 
ment continued until 1866, when Judge Clark withdrew and 
it again became Morrison & Stanley. That style of business 
continued until L872, when Frank inland, who had been a 


student in the office, became a member of the firm under the 
name of Morrison, Stanley & Hiland. 

In 1.874 Judge Stanley was appointed one of the justices of 
the Circuit Court of New Hampshire, and retired from the 
firm, which became Morrison & Hiland. 

In 1876 Roland Eowell, Esq., who had been a student in the 
office, became a member of the firm under name of Morrison, 
Hiland & Rowell. Mr. Hiland died in the latter part of 1878, 
and the firm was then dissolved. 

In 1879 Hon. John P. Bartlett became a member of the firm 
and the name was Morrison & Bartlett; that firm continued 
until 1881, when Judge Bartlett retired, and from that time 
Mr. Morrison had no partner and did but very little work. He 
was accustomed to come to his old office daily and kept along 
in a way, but his health was declining and he was unable to 
transact business. It is a somewhat interesting fact that dur- 
ing the time he was engaged in business, the different firms 
in which Mr. Morrison was the senior partner entered in the 
court in Hillsborough county somewhere about three thousand 
two hundred cases, and appeared for the defendant in about 
twenty-six hundred cases, besides all the criminal business that 
they had and besides all the cases that they had in other coun- 
ties, which were quite considerable in number. I might state 
also in this connection that Mr. Morrison was appointed solic- 
itor of Hillsborough county in 1845, which position he held 
about four years, resigning in 1849 for the reason that the 
remuneration that he received for transacting the business of 
the state was so small he could not afford to continue in the 
office. Every lawyer will understand, it prevented the firms 
with which he was connected from engaging in the defense of 
any state action, his salary was very small, and it necessarily 
deprived him and his partners of a considerable volume of 
business which they would otherwise have been likely to re- 


In town affairs Mr Morrison took quite an active part, and 
generally joined with those who were outside the "village" in 
the controversies in matters of taxes and making appropria- 
tions for the town improvements and the like. It is well 
known that for a time the people who were in the "village" of 
Manchester, as it was then called, were asking for these im- 
provements and appropriations, whereas, those in the outskirts 
of the town were opposed to that practice. Mr. Morrison, be- 
ing a Democrat and having sympathies in that direction, gen- 
erally took up the causes of the outsiders, and in their contro- 
versies and by his speeches and adroit management in the par- 
liamentary point of view, defeated the measures which were 
before the town meetings, and succeeded in gaining the favor 
of the outside people. He became quite popular with the 
Democrats and to a certain extent with the Whig party. He 
gained more friends among the Whigs than he lost among the 
Democrats by his management in these matters. 

He was moderator of the town meeting in 1840 or 1841 and 
1844, and was also a member of the committee of arrangements 
with reference to procuring some legislation which the city 
desired. He took a lively interest in the matter of a site for 
the town hall and was one of the committee to decide finally 
upon its selection. 

In 1856, he was retained in the famous controversy before 
the New Hampshire legislature relating to the proposed rail- 
road legislation. It will be remembered that there was an ef- 
fort made at that time to procure the passage of a bill for the 
consolidation of the Manchester & Lawrence railroad and the 
Concord railroad. 

Mr. Spaulding, Judge Upham, Col. Joseph A. Gilmore, and 
others interested, made a. great effort to procure this legisla- 
tion. Mr. Morrison, Hon. Benjamin F. Ayer, Hon. Daniel 
Clarke, and Hon. James U. Parker, were among the counsel 
who opposed it. On the other side, the counsel were Col. John 


H. George, Hon. Josiah Quincy, and several distinguished 
members of the Boston bar. 

At that time the opinion of the great majority of the peo- 
ple in New Hampshire was opposed to the consolidation of rail- 
roads. Notwithstanding the unfavorable outlook which those 
who favored the measure had, they engaged in this undertak- 
ing with great earnestness, and brought to bear every means 
that the corporation influence could obtain. 

Mr Morrison, Mr. Ayer, Mr. Clarke, and Mr. Parker all 
made arguments in opposition to the proposed legislation. 
The subject was divided, and each one occupied his own field 
without encroaching upon the others. It is not well to make 
comparisons under such circumstances. Suffice it to say, that 
Mr. Morrison's argument certainly ranked as high as either 
of the other eminent gentlemen, and that the bill was defeated 
by a decisive majority. 

Mr. Morrison was always an ardent and out-spoken Demo- 
crat, and participated in the politics of the state quite actively 
from some time in 1839 or 1840 down to 1862 or 1863. He 
was a member of the House of Eepresentatives in 1840, 1841, 
1849, and 1850. He was also a member of the 31st and 33d 

While in the New Hampshire legislature he was prominent 
and influential, and although not given to frequent speeches 
he occasionally addressed the house upon important measures, 
and was generally successful, and did much in the work of 
shaping legislation. He was regarded as a very able and adroit 
debater and shrewd in parliamentary tactics. One quite cele- 
brated discussion in which he took part has been spoken of, 
and it is said that the speech which he made on that occasion 
was one of the ablest legal arguments ever made before the 
legislature. It was in relation to an amendment of the charter 
of the city of Portsmouth which provided that the different 
wards in the city should have the same authority in various 
matters as the towns throughout the state. It is said that Mr. 


Morrison drew the hill and that the constitutionality of the 
measure was the subject of contention 

The opponents selected Mr. Christy, of Dover, who was one 
of the most noted lawyers of the state, to manage the debate 
on their side, and he was naturally looked to for an answer to 
Mr. Morrison's argument. The story runs that during the 
first part of Mr. Morrison's speech, Mr. Christy took notes as 
he passed along and paid particular attention to what was be- 
ing said. After a time he laid down his pencil and listened 
attentively to what Mr. Morrison was saying. When Mr. Mor- 
rison closed his argument, Mr. Christy was expected to re- 
spond, but he failed to do so, and when asked why he did not 
reply, said that there was no reply to be made; that Mr. Morri- 
son's argument had convinced him that the bill was constitu- 
tional and he declined to make any further contention. 

In the political elections of New Hampshire he always took 
a deep interest, and occasionally went upon the stump. I re- 
member hearing him in the canvass for the election of General 
Pierce in the town of Warner. There was a flag-raising and a 
mass meeting and the people from the various surrounding 
towns were very well represented. Dr. Jason H. Ames, a very 
distinguished physician from the neighboring town of Brad- 
ford, presided. Mr. Morrison was the principal speaker and 
occupied the most of the afternoon. I remember that the 
meeting was very large and enthusiastic and that his speech 
was regarded as a wonderful effort. I find in the files of the 
Patriot an allusion to it as one of the most remarkable ad- 
dresses of the time, but no abstract is given of its contents. 

On another occasion, a mass meeting was being held in the 
old city hall of Manchester; Hon. B. F. Aver was president of 
the meeting and made an address. Mr. Morrison delivered the 
principal speech of the occasion. There was an excursion 
along the Northern railroad to Manchester to attend this meet- 
ing, and (piite a large number of people came. I was among 
them, and I recollect that there was some disturbance by the 


opponents during Mr. Ayer's speech and he called for the po- 
lice to restore order. Mr. Morrison immediately objected to 
sending for the police and said that he would be responsible 
for the good order of the meeting. He was immediately intro- 
duced, and commenced his address, and I recollect very well 
the fact that in his preliminary remarks, calling upon them to 
preserve the good name of the city for order and proper con- 
duct, he brought the meeting to a respectful silence, and there 
was no further trouble or annoyance. 

As I remember his reputation and as I have heard it spoken 
of recently, he was eminently adroit and tactful and was capa- 
ble of meeting emergencies and obtaining control of his audi- 
ence as few men could do. The most prominent feature of his 
political life, however, was his action in Congress in opposing 
the passage of the Nebraska and Kansas bill. Indeed, viewing 
it from the present standpoint, it was among the grandest ef- 
forts in the history of our national legislation, and entitles him 
to the highest gratitude and admiration of succeeding genera- 
tions. It is not consistent to go into the history of those times 
any further than to say it was a struggle for supremacy between 
slavery and anti-slavery, and that it was one of the most promi- 
nent and far-reaching events in a long and bitter controversy 
between those contending forces. 

Mr. Morrison was a personal friend and admirer of Presi- 
dent Pierce and was regarded as an able supporter of his ad- 
ministration, but he could not favor the Nebraska and Kansas 
bill, and arrayed himself with the opponents of that legislation. 

His speech upon the passage of the measure was delivered 
May 19, 1854, before the house as a committee of the whole. 
It may be found in the appendix of Congressional Globe of the 
33d Congress, page 49. He reviewed very carefully the whole 
subject of the history of the Missouri Compromise and the leg- 
islation connected with it, and also discussed with wonderful 
ability the two questions as they were styled in the report, one 
of domain, and one of empire or sovereignty. 


The substance of it was whether Congress or the people 
should govern the territories before they became states. The 
legal argument which he made, the authorities which he cited 
and the position which he took are very interesting indeed. 
At the time, Mr. Benton and Mr. Chase of Ohio and others 
commented upon Mr. Morrison's speech in a most favorable 
manner and pronounced it one of the ablest efforts in connec- 
tion with the whole subject. There is no question but that it 
took courage and profound ability to take the position and 
make the address that Mr. Morrison delivered on that occa- 
sion. He was very severely criticised by his own party and 
lost some political and personal friends thereby. 

In writing home under date of May 31, 1854, he speaks of 
this matter and says that he is entirely satisfied with the posi- 
tion which he had taken, although he understands that it will 
bring upon his head a great deal of adverse criticism and per- 
sonal abuse. To quote his own language, he says: "I am sat- 
isfied with my vote and could not and would not change it if 
it were in my power to do so. I know I have done my duty, 
and when sustained by a consciousness of right, boisterous 
clamors of those who do not understand it, will not disturb 
me. I prefer to have the approbation of my own conscience 
rather than any other tribunal." In another letter written to 
the same person, dated June 5, 1854, he says: "I have already 
told you that I have no regrets for my course or vote on the 
Nebraska bill. I expected some of the Democrats of Manches- 
ter and other parts of New Hampshire would raise an outcry, 
but, as was said of Biddle, I am as calm as the summer morn- 
ing and wait with patience for a full development of their 
schemes. I shall then make up my mind what course duty to 
myself and the country requires me to take, and pursue it/' 

Mr. Morrison realized full well that his course would be sub- 
jected to severe criticism, and he was willing to take the 
chances of the venture. He lived long enough to have it uni- 
versally approved, and had the satisfaction of knowing that he 


was a prominent factor in the great controversy which settled 
for all time the permanency of our government and eliminated 
from it the only dangerous element in its constitution. 

When the war came on, Mr. Morrison took a position in sup- 
port of the government and lent his influence in common with 
the people here in approval of the steps which the adminis- 
tration took to meet the rebellion, 

In 1861, when the first call for troops was made, Mr. Mor- 
rison, in company with Hon. Daniel Clarke, addressed a union 
meeting held for the purpose of supplying certain things for 
the soldiers who were to go to the front, and later he made 
a speech on a similar occasion in connection with the 10th 
regiment. In both of these addresses he took strong ground 
in favor of maintaining the Union at whatever cost it might 
require, and that the government should sustain the President 
until the war should be fought out. I think that was always 
his position, but at times he criticised various measures which 
were taken in the progress of the war, deeming them unwise 
and subversive of the liberties of the people. 

He was a good citizen, sincere and earnest, and imbued with 
a love for his country and an obedience to its laws, and pos- 
sessed a full appreciation of their value. It was an intelli- 
gent patriotism and a reasonable devotion. 

It is not wholly without interest to know where Mr. Morri- 
son resided here in the city. He lived about a year after his 
marriage in Amoskeag village, in a small tenement just below 
the Goffstown line, and in 1839 moved into the brick building 
on the corner of Amherst and Vine streets, in the upper story. 

After a few years he moved into the brick tenement house 
directly east of Concord square on Pine street, and into the 
south end of the block. From that place, after some six or 
seven years, he moved into the double house on Amherst street, 
where he lived the remainder of his life. Hon. Moses Morris 
resided in the eastern part of the house for many years, but 
later it was occupied by Mr. D. P. Perkins, who was one of Mr. 


Morrison's nearest friends during the last twenty-five or more 
years of his life. Mr. Morrison lived in a modest and inex- 
pensive style and spent very little time in connection with so- 
ciety or elsewhere except in his business circles and his own 

He married Miss Mariah L. Fitch of Thetford, Vermont, 
November 15, 1838. She was the daughter of the Hon. Ly- 
man Fitch, who for many years was judge of Orange County 
Court, Vermont. 

Mr. Morrison in early times took much interest in Masonic- 
matters and gave considerable attention to their support. He 
became a member of Lafayette Lodge June, 1853, Mt Horeb 
Chapter, November, 1853, and Trinity Commandery May, 

He was High Priest of the Chapter from September 28, 
1855, to September 28, 1856. It will be remembered that 
when the corner-stone of the Court House was laid July 4, 
1864, he delivered the address, and it was regarded with great 
favor by the fraternity especially, as well as the public. I 
have been unable to find it in any of the papers, and infer that 
it was not published. 

But the greatest accomplishments and the highest renown of 
Mr. Morrison's life was his character, ability, and success as a 
jury lawyer and advocate. In that department of professional 
labor he was eminent and distinguished in a very great degree. 
His work was of high order, he ranked among the first lawyers 
of the state, so it has been said of him by an eminent eulogist, 
that if his lines had been cast in some great city like Boston 
or New York, he would have been the peer of the best jury ad- 
vocates in the country. 

I am aware that the opinion of the professon is that one who 
ranks high as a lawyer in the best sense of the term, or per- 
haps more properly as a jurist, is really in the most eminent 
position. That is undoubtedly a well-founded opinion, having 
in view the broader and more important interests of the coun- 
try and the enforcement of the law for the body politic, but 


when considering the ability of the individual and judging of 
the lawyer in his personal capacity by his own merits and 
achievements in a professional point of view, the jury advocate 
justly and properly ranks among the highest and most impor- 
tant class in the profession. 

The logic of the bench is easily worked out, the reasoning 
which the jurist applies in the discharge of his duty has the 
advantage of study, reflection and under favorable conditions, 
but the marshaling of facts and analysis of evidence, the appli- 
cation of the rules of law and the enforcing of the conclusions 
which exigencies of the situation demand, all together require 
a grade of ability, a strength of mind and a clearness of mental 
vision unequaled by any other duty which the practice de- 

In this department of the legal profession, Mr. Morrison 
excelled and was the peer of any of those eminent men who oc- 
cupied a commanding position during the last quarter of a cen- 
tury, in the history of the bar in New Hampshire. 

The common judgment of mankind is influenced and con- 
trolled more by comparison than by intrinsic value. The 
highest ideal or the most complete personification of character 
is fixed by some standard, and by it actual value and personal 
merit are judged and determined. The most eloquent of men, 
the most profound reasoners, the most accomplished scholars, 
are chosen as examples, and by such, the ability, scholarship, 
and learning of men who are in actual life are compared and 
measured. It may not be the most just manner, but it is the 
most practical and perhaps the surest guide for intelligent 

It is difficult to handle ideas or to fully comprehend even 
the ideal creations of one's own mind, but it is easy to see the 
actual demonstration of ability and the working out of the 
highest character in real life, and those who are compared with 
the most renowned in personal achievements, or grandest in 


ability are brought out in clear and well defined relief justly 
and properly understood. 

Mr. Morrison lived during a period of our history which was 
marked by men, the most renowned, the ablest and most in- 
fluential that ever existed in the state. With a few exceptions 
such as Mr. Webster, Mr. Mason, and their contemporaries, no 
age produced such a remarkable class of men as that in which 
Mr. Morrison lived. Their names have become household 
words of the profession, and their eminent position and ac- 
knowledged superiority have become the pride and glory of the 
New Hampshire bar. 

The Athertons, General Pierce, Judge George Y. Sawyer, 
Mark Farley, Mr. Daniel M. Christy, John S. Wells, Gen. Gil- 
man Marston, Albert R. Hatch, Judge Ira Perley, Judge Jo- 
siah Minot, Hon. Mason W. Tappan, Judge H. A. Bellows, 
Judge W. H. Bartlett, and in later days, Col. J. H. George, 
Judge William S. Foster, Judge Asa Fowler, Hon. Harry Hib- 
bard, the Binghams, Austin F. Pike, Judge Ira A. Eastman, 
Hon. Daniel Clark, Gen. A. F. Stevens, Senator Bainbridge 
Wadlcigh, Judge Samuel D. Bell, Hon. Samuel N. Bell, and 
others, were the lawyers with whom Mr. Morrison practiced 
during the greater part of his professional life, and at one time 
or another met and crossed swords with nearly all of them. 
Truly he might say, as Spartacus of old: "Ye do well to call 
him Chief who hath met upon the bloody arena every form of 
man and beast which the broad empire of Rome could produce 
and never yet lowered his arm. 7 ' 

For about twenty-five or thirty years he was accustomed to 
try causes with those of whom I have spoken whenever occa- 
sion brought them together, and they always found him a 
"foeman worthy of their steel." It is probable that he tried 
more causes by jury than any other man in the state of New 
Hampshire, and it is a well-known fact that his success was 
far beyond the average. He won more than his share, and in 
view of the wonderful talent which was arrayed against him, 


the giants of the profession with whom he contended and the 
importance of the causes in which he was engaged, the his- 
tory of his professional life is one of the most remarkable and 
interesting of any lawyer within our state. 

Mr. Morrison's inclinations led him frequently to assist in 
causes of those who were unable to furnish sufficient means to 
properly maintain their rights. As a rule he was opposed to 
corporations, and was frequently engaged to prosecute cases of 
a damage character. This position of things, of course, made 
him counsel for the plaintiff and gave him an advantage in 
the management of suits of that character. 

Some discount should be made on account of the favorable 
position which the plaintiff has, but he was almost universally 
successful in that kind of suits. The laws were such that the 
towns at that time were liable for damages happening to a 
traveler by reason of imperfect highways, and a large volume 
of business arose out of that condition of things. 

Mr. Morrison was usually found with the plaintiff in all of 
that class of cases, and his success was very remarkable, but he 
was not always against the corporations. He was for a long 
time retained as counsel for the Amoskeag Manufacturing 
Company, and tried their most important and far-reaching 
suit, which settled forever much of the law relating to the 
right on the part of the company to maintain flashboards upon 
its dam. A great number of cases in the interest of the ripa- 
rian owners were brought and upon the Hillsborough docket; 
the whole trouble eventually culminated in the prosecution of 
Mr. Goodale of Hooksett for removing the flashboards. Mr. 
Morrison had charge of the case for the company. It was the 
hinge of the whole controversy and meant hundreds of thou- 
sands of dollars to the corporation and to the interests of those 
who depend upon the business done by means of the Mer- 
rimack water-power. The cause lasted some ten days and was 
very earnestly and tenaciously defended. 


He was successful, and gained a victory which inured very 
largely to the benefit of the company and the prosperity of the 
surrounding community, while it did not injure the riparian 
owners in any appreciable way. One circumstance in connec- 
tion with that is somewhat interesting, the charge which he 
made for his services. It was at the rate of twenty-five dollars 
a day for the ten days in trial and one hundred dollars for the 
argument, which consumed one half a day. 

Mr. Morrison, in remarking upon it, said that he feared the 
company would object to paying him so large a bill, but he 
thought he had earned the money. Mr. E. A. Straw, who was 
then agent, not only paid the bill cheerfully, but warmly com- 
plimented Mr. Morrison for his success and his reasonable 
charges. He was frequently retained in criminal causes, and 
tried some of the most important cases in the history of our 
state. One especially notorious was where he defended the 
Eev. Mr. Dudley, who was accused of murdering his wife by 
strangling. The case was tried at Plymouth, and although 
the evidence was overwhelming, he succeeded in dividing the 
jury and defeated an agreement at the first trial; the case was 
again tried and Dudley was convicted. There was no doubt 
about the guilt of the accused, and it was a matter of astonish- 
ment that he was not convicted at the first trial. It is said 
that some of the jurors would not consent to the verdict for the 
state because, while they believed the evidence was all right to 
sustain his guilt, the lawyer's argument convinced them the 
other way. That would seem rather a strange position for the 
jurors to take, but in the light of the history of the jury trials 
it is probable that it was correct. 

He was engaged in the defense of the Wentworths in the 
celebrated Parker murder case in company with Mr. Pierce and 
General Butler. Mr. Morrison had the preparation of that 
case, and while the success of it was attributed to the eloquent 
argument of Mr. Pierce, still, it is well understood that the in- 


vestigation by Morrison as junior counsel was an important 
factor in the success of the defense. 

The legal profession understand the importance of cross-ex- 
amination of witnesses, and especially in the trial of causes by 
the jury. 

As has been said by an eminent jurist, there are "danger 
lines all round a case, and the greatest skill of a lawyer in con- 
ducting the cross-examination of witnesses is necessary to avoid 
getting beyond them in his effort to break the force of unfavor- 
able testimony." 

Mr. Morrison was very skilful and adroit in this branch of 
jury work. Indeed, he was master of the art, and if there were 
any weak places in his adversary's case by reason of doubtful 
testimony, he was sure to find them and expose the wrong. 
He was always gentlemanly but unsparing in his examination 
and usually very severe in his comments upon unsatisfactory 
evidence. While he was adroit in the cross-examination, he 
was equally strong in marshaling facts and preparing his own 
witness as for the ordeal for a trial. No member of the pro- 
fession in New Hampshire understood better than Mr. Morri- 
son the art of placing before a jury his side of the case. 

He was a great admirer of the system of the trial by jury. 
He was very familiar with its origin and history, and it was a 
pastime with him to discuss its points of advantage and main- 
tain its wisdom as the most complete method that had ever 
been devised for the settling of controversies. 

"He cherished the old-fashioned trial by a jury of twelve 
men who were honest and intelligent citizens as it remains to- 
day. . . ." He regarded it as the "arena on which have been 
fought the great battles of right against wrong, of suitor 
against suitor, and as a bulwark against all encroachments on 
the liberty and civil rights of citizens." 

As has been stated by a very eminent jurist, "this trial by 
jury is not only the ancient magistry, rich in traditions of free- 
dom and justice, glorified by prestige and prowess of all the 


great advocates of our race, but it is the proudest and most de- 
lightful privilege of our whole professional life. . . . 

"Here alone occur those sudden and unexpected conflicts of 
reason of wit, and of nerve with our adversaries; with the judge 
and with the witnesses; those constant surprises equal to the 
most startling comedy or tragedy. . . . Sorry indeed for 
our profession will be the day when this best, brightest and 
most delightful function, which calls into play the highest 
qualities of the heart, of the intellect, and of the will, shall 
cease to excite and feed our ambition, sympathy and loyalty." 

I believe Mr. Morrison appreciated and entered into sympa- 
thy with this admiration so well expressed, for trial by jury, 
and that it contributed very largely to his success before that 

Mr. Morrison died very suddenly December 21, 1888. He 
had endured physical decline so long that his friends thought 
he might live on for years. He had hardly taken his bed in 
consequence of his last illness before death came. Old age had 
done its work, and the iron constitution had crumbled, and his 
life ceased to exist. 

It is not possible to do justice in the brief time allotted to 
this exercise, to such a life and character. He was a man of 
kind and sympathetic nature, loyal to his friends and to all 
causes in which he enlisted, possessed of a high sense of honor, 
brave and determined in the discharge of his duty, amiable and 
courteous as a companion, of unquestioned integrity and con- 
trolled by a keen sense of duty. He was a strong party leader, 
a brilliant advocate at the bar, on the stump or in the halls 
of the legislation. The impression that his life made upon 
our institutions and the effect upon the community in which 
he lived can never be fully known, but it will be agreed by all 
men familiar with his history that he rendered distinguished 
and honorable service to his country, discharged well his duty 
as a citizen, and contributed a great and valuable work to the 
honor of the profession of law. 



" ? Tis sweet to remember, I would not forego 
The charm which the Past o'er the Present can throw 
For all the gay visions that Fancy may weave 
In her web of illusion which shines to deceive." 

One of the most cherished prerogatives of old age is the priv- 
ilege accorded to it of indulging in reminiscence. It is a 
source of legitimate and wholesome gratification to him who 
has attained to the allotted span of three-score years and ten 
to recall his boyhood days and, in memory, review the scenes 
through which he has passed. The man who, today, records 
his years by six or seven decades has the unquestioned right to 
congratulate himself on the fact that he has lived in the most 
marvelous epoch in the world's history. 

No other period in the annals of time has been so replete 
with discoveries and inventions fraught with such vital and 
beneficent import to humanity. So rapid, indeed, have been 
the changes in the methods and processes of accomplishing 
results that it is difficult if not impossible for the boy of today 
to adequately comprehend what was the environment of the 
boy of sixty or seventy years ago. And old methods are so soon 
forgotten and the new so readily adopted, that we of more ad- 
vanced years, before whose very eyes this strange metamor- 
phosis has transpired, do not fully appreciate the magnitude 
or importance of the transformation through which we have 
passed. It is not surprising that your ten-year-old son cannot 



adequately picture to himself the time when the only public 
conveyance from Manchester to Boston was a lumbering stage- 
coach or the still slower canal-boat when the traveller was for- 
tunate if he accomplished the journey in a day. The boy is 
impatient now if he does not arrive in sight of Bunker Hill 
monument in ninety minutes. 

It hardly seems possible that we were the boys whom our 
teachers taught how to write, fold and seal a letter so that its 
contents would not be exposed. That great boon to the indo- 
lent as well as to the busy man, the envelope, came into use 
less than sixty years ago. Have you forgotten how we took 
the letters to the post-office with five cents for postage if its 
destination was not over three hundred miles distant, and if 
the correspondent chanced to reside beyond those limits ten 
cents was the lowest rates we could make with Uncle Sam in 
those days. Who would have then dared to predict that the 
time would ever come when two cents would take a letter to 
the farthest limits of the United States and Canada, and five 
cents to almost any part of the world. We had almost forgot- 
ten that the envelope, the postage stamp, the postal card, the 
free collection and free delivery of letters and parcels, the 
money order and registered letter service, not to mention free 
rural collection and delivery, were conveniences unknown fifty 
years ago. 

Have you, my venerable friend, forgotten how we boys, after 
the chores were completed at night, gathered around the table 
on which stood the tallow dip that we mighi see to cipher and 
"do our sums"? I remember now your people were "well-to- 
do" and could afford the whale oil lamp. Whale oil was an 
expensive luxury, costing about one dollar a gallon. You 
might possibly have used for a short time a lamp burning 
what was called fluid. It was a kind of connecting link be- 
I wvcn the whale oil lamp and the kerosene lamp. We can re- 
member very distinctly the first kerosene used. It was very 
dark colored and in burning emitted an odor in no way sugges- 


tive of the perfumes of the pink or rose, quite different from 
the high grade kerosene oil of today. When first introduced 
it was sold for $1.25 per gallon. I remember when a boy and 
working in my brother's store on Elm street, of filling and 
trimming lamps in which was burned camphene. The lamps 
were rather intricate and required to be kept scrupulously clean 
in order to do good service. My memory may be somewhat 
impaired, but I have no recollection of doing anything else in 
that store but trim those seventeen camphene lamps. The 
lamps had to be trimmed every day, for it was then the custom 
to keep the stores open every evening in the week except Sun- 

The gas pipes were first laid through Elm street in 1851. 
In the course of a year or two the pipes were so far extended 
that there was a gas light at the intersection of most of the 
streets in the more central part of the city. On nights when 
the almanac foretold the probability of there being moonlight, 
the street lamps were not lighted. No matter how dark and 
rainy the night might be the almanac's predictions were re- 
spected and the gas not lighted. On other nights they were 
promptly extinguished at eleven o'clock. But really it made 
but little difference whether the street lamps were lighted or 
not. The light was so dim and the lamps so far apart that they 
seemed rather to intensify than dispel the darkness. 

The story of the discovery of kerosene, or petroleum oil, of 
its evolution, how it has almost entirely superseded the use of 
all other illuminating fluids throughout the world, of the im- 
mense quantities produced, of the illimitable uses to which it 
and its by-products, including a university, are applied, of the 
wonderful revolution it has produced in the arts and manufac- 
tures, of what a boon it has been to the poor and rich alike, 
how its production has developed the most monstrous monop- 
oly the world has ever known, of the enormous fortunes, be- 
yond the dreams of avarice, which its manipulators have ac- 
quired, is a story indeed more wonderful than that of Aladdin's 


lamp. Such radical and magical changes in such a brief period 
of time have never before taken place within the memory of 

Perhaps in no other way can we arrive at so just a com- 
prehension of the strong contrast between the methods and 
appliances in general use in our boyhood-days and those in 
use today as by noting some of the changes which the adoption 
of electricity as an agent has brought about. Hardly a score of 
years has passed since electric lighting was first introduced. 
Imagine if you can what a pall of gloom would settle over the 
city if from the mills, the streets and the stores electric lights 
were eliminated. 

Fifty years ago the telegraph had hardly passed its experi- 
mental stage. Fifty-three years ago the first submarine cable 
was laid across the English channel, a distance of twenty-seven 
miles. Today there is hardly a place so remote or obscure but 
it may be reached by a telegram. With the telephone we con- 
verse with a friend a thousand miles away and distinguish 
every tone and accent of his voice as distinctly as if he were 
standing beside us. The world has been girdled with wires and 
the message is flashed that circles the world. It was but as 
yesterday that the slow, plodding horse dragged the ill-fur- 
nished car along the tracks. Today we have ceased to wonder 
at the ponderous semi-palatial car bowling through our streets 
propelled, heated, and lighted by the same mysterious and in- 
visible force. The electric light, the telegraph, the telephone, 
the phonograph, the X-rays, all these strange products of the 
wizard's wand have become such ordinary matters of course 
that we have almost forgotten that they are younger than our- 
selves. It is difficult to overestimate the importance to the 
science of medicine of the discovery and introduction of anaes- 
thetics and antiseptics, and yet these two great factors in suc- 
cessful surgery, which have-done so much for the alleviation of 
pain and the prolongation of life, were practically unknown 
fifty vears ago. 

THEN AND NOW. 163 , 

The first complete sewing machine was patented by Elias 
Howe, Jr., just fifty-seven years ago. You will hardly be able 
to conceive of what the result would be if the sewing machines 
were eliminated from the industries today. Those of us who 
are so fortunate as to have spent our earlier years on the farm 
need not be reminded that the mowing machine, the horse 
rake, the horse fork, the seed planter, the manure spreader, and 
various other farm machinery, make the lot of the farmer's boy 
of 1903 quite different, to say the least, from that of the coun- 
try boy of half a century ago. 

It would seem that these improved conditions would be great 
inducements for the farmer's son to follow the occupation of 
his father. But the discussion of the great question as to why 
they do not keep him on the farm is outside the limits of this 
paper. But perhaps, now that the free rural delivery system is 
becoming generally adopted, thus bringing the country boy in 
closer touch with the world, he may be more inclined to remain 
at the old homestead and till the paternal acres. 

Among a hundred illustrations which might be adduced to 
show the difference between the present times and the com- 
paratively recent past is what, for the lack of a better term, we 
may call the more general diffusion of literature in these days, 
of books, magazines, and newspapers, together with improved 
educational facilities. What I have to say in regard to this 
matter must be prefaced with an apology for obtruding my 
own personality into the subject. You will allow me to recall 
my own environment, as a boy upon a farm three or four miles 
from any city or village. In the large, square, low-posted sit- 
ting-room, with its wainscoted walls and uncarpeted floor, ex- 
cept for the home-made braided mats, opposite the wide, open 
fireplace, with its swinging crane, stood the secretary or book- 
case. Upon the shelves of the secretary were the old family 
Bible, bound in calf, "Pilgrim's Progress," Bible Dictionary, 
"New England Gazetteer," "Doddridge's Sermons," "Watts on 
the Improvement of the Mind," The Old Farmer's Almanac, 


and The New England Primer. There were undoubtedly a 
few other books there the names of which I have forgotten. 
Besides these there were, of course, our schoolbooks: The 
Rhetorical Reader, The American School Reader, The Young 
Reader, Adam's Old and New Arithmetics, Morse's and Mitch- 
el's Geographies, Murray's & Smith's Grammars, Comstock's 
Natural Philosophy, and Webster's Spelling Book. I cherish 
today the memory of many of these old books as dear friend? 
of my youth. Many of the selections, read year after year, are 
yet, after the lapse of more than half a century, fresh in my 
mind. Bryant's "Thanatopsis," Ware's "Ursa Major," "Old 
Ironsides," "Marco Bozzaris," "A Psalm of Life," and bits of 
poetry of this character were well worth remembering. The 
prose selections were from the writings and speeches of such 
men as Edward Everett, Daniel Webster, Rufus Choate, Pat- 
rick Henry, John Quincy Adams, W. EL Prescott, R. H. Dana, 
and Macaulay. I was about to compare the character of these 
selections with those with which the readers of today are filled, 
but hesitate to do so fearing lest I shall be unable to disabuse 
my mind of a prejudice partial to those old readers. 

Mathematics were a frightful bugbear to me, and I fear I 
should be unable to speak without bias of those arithmetics. 
The rules were fearfully and wonderfully explicit: Write down 
the numbers to be added one under another, units under units 
and tens under tens — but if we neglected to draw a line under- 
neath it seemed to invalidate the whole process. The only 
pleasant feature I remember about the old arithmetic was that 
the last page or two was given up to riddles and puzzles. The 
great question to be answered in one of these momentous prob- 
lems was stated in these words: 

"As I was going to St. Ives 
I met a man with seven wives. 
Each wife had seven sacks, 
Each sack had seven cats, 


Each cat had seven kits, 

Kits, cats, sacks, and wives, 

How many were going to St. Ives?" 

Then there was the dilemma in which the man found him- 
self, who had come to the river with a fox, a goose, and a peck 
of corn, which he must take across the river in a boat, one at a 
time, never leaving the fox to eat up the goose, nor the goose 
to eat up the corn. 

Then there was the poor frog at the bottom of the well who 
jumped up nights and fell back days. I do not know whether 
he ever got out. He certainly never received any assistance 
from me. 

Among the other books upon the shelves of the old secretary 
was one which had escaped my memory, "Goodrich's History 
of the United States." The boy who commenced to study the 
history and geography of the United States fifty years ago was 
fortunate in that he did not have so much to learn as the 
school-boy of 1903. He had only to struggle with the topo- 
graphy and general history of thirty-one states, while the boy 
of this generation who graduates from the grammar school 
must be familiar with the statistics of forty-five states, not to 
mention Hawaii, Porto Eico, and the Philippine Islands. 

Now, bear with me just a moment while I take you into the 
schoolhouse in our district and introduce you to the school- 
master. Alas! and alas! I cannot do it in reality. The old 
schoolhouse has long since disappeared and no other has taken 
its place. In that district where fifty years ago there were 
thirty-five and sometimes forty scholars attending school in the 
winters, there are now only two of school age, and they are con- 
veyed to a neighboring district to receive their rudimentary 
education. But although that old shrine has vanished, and 
those whose memories made it sacred have gone to their long 
home, nevertheless it remains in my remembrance as intact as 
if it existed today. In my mind's eye I see its rough unpainted 


walls, its rude and scarified benches and desks. In the center 
of the floor stands the great square stove; at the end of the 
room opposite the door the master's desk with the ever present 
accompaniments of rod and ruler. Behind the desk sits the 
embodiment of stern discipline and superior knowledge, the 
schoolmaster. Flogging was more generally practiced in 
school then than now. But they tell us more is learned now. 
So that it is practically true that what the boy loses at one end 
he gains at the other. On the left as we enter are the benches 
for the boys, and on the right for the girls. On the front seats 
are the younger scholars, w T ith no desks in front of them, dang- 
ling their feet several inches from the floor. The larger schol- 
ars attend school only during the few weeks of the winter 
term, when there is little doing on the farm. Wood carving 
was not one of the branches taught, but was, nevertheless, zeal- 
ously practiced, as those old benches and desks would testify 
if they were still in existence. Usually in summer the school 
was in charge of a woman, and in the winter the schoolmaster 
took her place. The teacher was engaged by a prudential com- 
mittee of one, who was chosen annually by the heads of the 
families constituting the district. It pains me to confess that 
the prudential committee was not always a man possessed of 
superior judgment as to the qualifications of a good teacher. 
We were sometimes taught that which it was advisable for us 
later on to unlearn. When the first class in reading was lined 
up on the floor, it came my turn to read. I was unfortunate 
in running up against the word "mechanism,'' which blocked 
my further progress. "Go on," said the master. "I don't 
know the word," I replied. "Machimism" shouted the mas- 
ter in a tone which implied scorn and contempt for my igno- 
rance. That same pedagogue, on the school records spelled my 
brother's name H-e-n-e-r-y, which my brother insists to this 
day is not the correct way of- spelling his name. 

But let as not judge too harshly or be too hypercritical. 
Thai was before the time of the normal school and the train- 


ing school. If from what I have said, anyone has gained the 
impression that this person was a fair representative of the 
schoolteacher of olden times, I beg of them to disabuse their 
mind of that idea. Never, in any profession, was there a class 
of nobler, more self-sacrificing, hard working, good-intentioned 
men and women than the schoolteachers of fifty years ago. 
That this particular one should have missed his vocation was 
due simply to the faulty methods of selecting teachers then in 
vogue. The compensation which the teachers received seemed 
in those days sufficient to secure the best talent. The master 
commanded the munificent salary of four and sometimes as 
high as five dollars a week. A good bright schoolmistress, cap- 
able of teaching all the branches from A, B, C up to grammar 
and arithmetic inclusive, would sometimes demand for her ser- 
vices as high as one dollar and a half a week. This, however, 
included board. In the parlance of those days, the teacher 
boarded around, remaining in each family a time proportionate 
to the number of scholars attending school from that family. 
It gives me great pleasure to testify to the success which at- 
tended the efforts of the good housewives of those days in mak- 
ing pleasant the lot of the teacher while under their roof. 
There was nothing too good for the teacher, and it was a red 
letter week in every family when the teacher boarded there. 

The steel pen had not yet come into general use, and one of 
the duties which devolved upon the teacher was to sharpen or 
mend the goose quill pens, more especially for the younger 
pupils. It required considerable mechanical ability, and no 
little time to put twenty-five or thirty goose quills into a prop- 
er condition so that they would not scratch and distribute the 
ink promiscuously. The steel pen, the fountain pen and the 
typewriter have rendered this skill on the part of the teacher 
of today unnecessary, and has consigned the good old-fash- 
ioned accomplishment of mending a goose quill into innocu- 
ous desuetude. 


There was a custom in vogue at that time, in country dis- 
tricts, of locking the master out New Year's Day. If the mas- 
ter left the, at the noon hour, on his return his 
entrance was barred, and the boys and girls on that afternoon 
enjoyed themselves in the good old-fashioned way. The wood 
for heating the schoolhouse was furnished, in turn, by the 
heads of the families of the district gratuitously. The larger 
boys took turns in building the fire and cutting the wood. 
Many of the scholars lived long distances from school, some of 
them as far as one mile and a half away. School hours were 
from nine to twelve and from one to four, and no ringing out 
for bad weather. Those were the days of top or long-legged 
boots, when we tied cords around our trousers' legs at the ankle 
to keep out the snow while we plodded through the deep drifts. 
Overcoats and underflannels had not then entered upon their 
mission of emasculating youthful vigor. 

It was in that era of New England life when it was required 
of the boy to contribute something in the line of service toward 
the comfort and support of the family before the whole ma- 
chinery of the household had to be geared to his likes and 

The boy did not in those days have accorded to him as one 
of his inalienable rights the privilege of playing ball half of 
his time in order to develop his muscle. There were other 
methods on the farm which accomplished that result and in- 
cidentally contributed something toward the welfare of the 
family. I am inclined to think, however, that the hard-work- 
ing farmer of those times, who had never himself enjoyed the 
luxury of leisure, hardly appreciated the fact that the ordinary 
boy does require a little recreation. If I may be pardoned, I 
will reproduce a short dialogue which took place between my 
father and myself when I was about twelve years of age. It 
was at the close of a day in late autumn. We had been en- 
gaged in some late harvesting, and feeling the need of a little 
variety of exercise, I asked my father if I might go over to 


our next neighbors and play with the boys. My father, look- 
ing up from his weekly paper, asked: 

"Have you filled the wood-box?" 

"Yes, sir/ 7 I replied. 

"Have you got plenty of kindling?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Done all your chores?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Well, now you had better pull off your boots, warm your 
feet, and run up to bed, so as to get up early in the morning." 

The farmer who did not in those days own at least one yoke 
of oxen could hardly claim to move in the best circles. It re- 
quires no great effort to recall the time when more oxen than 
horses were seen on Elm street hauling loads of wood, hay or 
lumber. It may have escaped your memory that the house 
now standing on the northwest corner of Main and Milford 
streets in West Manchester was hauled from near Bedford 
Centre in the year 1839 by forty yoke of oxen. The old house 
was for many years a tavern under the name of "Traveler's 
Home." The horse has almost entirely superseded the ox, and 
the same Nemesis of Fate seems to be pursuing the horse in the 
shape of the trolley car and automobile. Wrestling and play- 
ing "goal" were the principal sports indulged m by the boys, 
but when the snow was in a plastic condition there were battles 
royal indeed. 

It is surprising how a trivial incident in one's life, of no im- 
portance whatever, will impress itself on the memory so indel- 
ibly that it never becomes erased. So it happens that I re- 
member that summer's morning in the old schoolhouse, when 
we little ones were gathered around the school-mistress, who 
in her gentle way was teaching us the sublime truths that 
d-o-g spelled dog, and c-a-t spelled cat, and so on to the mid- 
dle of the page where was h-e-n and opposite it the picture of 
a good fat hen as a sort of key to the problem. "What does 
h-e-n spell?" asked the teacher of little Emily. Little Emily 


looked at the picture intently for a moment and exultingly ex- 
claimed, "Biddy!" Little Emily never knew the delights of 
the kindergarten, that elysian realm where the little ones like 
humming-birds flit from flower to flower and gather the allur- 
ing sweets of knowledge. 

The spelling school has become almost as thoroughly extinct 
as the dodo. Fifty years ago the evening spelling school in 
the winter, in the country districts, was a kind of annex to the 
day school. In these contests, which were to decide who was 
most skilled in threading the mazes of English orthography, 
John took his station on one side of the schoolroom and Mary 
on the opposite, and alternately chose those whom they consid- 
ered best versed in spelling. The one first chosen took the po- 
sition next to the leader. For some unaccountable reason, it 
invariably happened that the best speller, in John's estimation, 
was his best girl. And the one Mary first chose to stand be- 
side her was pretty sure to escort her home after the spelling 
school. At first each and all stood and remained standing un- 
til they failed to spell a word correctly, and then sat down. 
The one who remained standing to the last was the cham- 
pion speller of the district, and was held in somewhat the same 
estimation as the victorious football player is today. Not un- 
frequently heads of families engaged in these contests, and 
were sometimes, perhaps from weariness, the first to sit down. 
The schoolroom on these occasions was lighted by tallow dips, 
wooden blocks with holes bored in the center serving as candle- 

In the earlier days children's picture books were not in 
vogue and the illustrated magazine and newspaper were in 
their infancy. Harper's New Magazine (it was new then), 
Gndi/s Lady's Book, and Ballou's Pictorial Companion were 
luxuries in which few indulged. The ten-cent magazine of to- 
day woulj have then been considered an "edition de luxe." 
The day of public libraries had hardly dawned, and the con- 
ception of the Book Lover's Library and the Tabard Inn had 


not entered into the mind of man. Nothing in the history of 
the last half- century emphasizes so emphatically the contrast 
between the present times and the comparatively recent past 
as the marvelous advance which has been made in the printing, 
illustration, and distribution of books, magazines, and news- 

Thus, in a manner somewhat rambling and desultory, I have 
noted a few of the myriad changes which have taken place 
within the narrow limits of our every-day living, during the 
last five or six decades. We have not crossed the frontier of 
that broader realm of our national expansion and development. 
Of the Mexican war, of the discovery of gold in California 
and of silver in Montana and Nevada, of the Civil war and 
the abolition of slavery, of the war with Spain and all that its 
results imply, of all these and many more wonders no mention 
has been made. 

If tonight, after the lapse of half a century, our fathers 
could revisit this earthly sphere, what would be their emotions 
of surprise and joy at the wonderful and beneficent changes 
which have taken place since they entered into rest. 



In a speech before both houses of Congress on January 8, 
1790. Washington declared that "To be prepared for war is 
one of the most effectual means of preserving peace." 

Our ancestors, in whose memories were still fresh the mo- 
mentous events of the war of the Eevolution, took this maxim 
to heart, and incorporated into the Constitution of New Hamp- 
shire an article embodying this principle of practical wisdom. 
The twenty-fourth article of the Bill of Eights distinctly de- 
clares that "A well regulated militia is the proper, natural and 
sure defence of a state." Eecognizing the importance of a 
well-organized and disciplined militia, the legislature of 1808 
passed an act, section 4 of which reads: "And be it further en- 
acted that each and every free, able bodied, white, male citizen 
of this state, resident therein, who is or shall be of the age of 
sixteen years, and under the age of forty years, (except as are 
hereinafter excused) shall severally and respectively be enrolled 
in the militia by the captain or commanding officer of the com- 
pany within whose bounds such citizen shall reside. And any 
legal notice or warning to the citizen so enrolled to attend a 
company, battalion or regimental muster or training shall be 
deemed a legal notice of his enrollment.*' 

By this same act the state was divided up into thirty-seven 
regimental districts. Each regiment was composed of two bat- 
talions. From these thirty-seven regiments were formed six 
brigades, and from these six brigades three divisions. Not less 
than thirty-two, nor more than sixty-four men, rank and file, 



constituted a company. Not more than one company of cav- 
alry or of artillery each could at the same time be in organ- 
ization within the limits of one regiment. 

The laws relating to the enrollment and organization of 
the New Hampshire militia remained substantially unchanged 
for forty-two years — from 1808 to 1850. Previous to the lat- 
ter year, however, the legislature changed the age limits within 
which military duty was required. The boy of sixteen was 
not enrolled until he became a young man of eighteen, but on 
the other hand, instead of his liability to performing military 
duty ending at the age of forty, it continued under the new 
law until he reached the age of forty-five. 

Space will not permit us to designate the boundaries of the 
thirty-seven regimental districts into which the state was di- 
vided. We may simply mark out two or three of them nearer 
home. The companies in the towns of Amherst, Merrimack, 
Litchfield, Mont Vernon and Milford formed one battalion; 
the companies in the towns of Dunstable, Hollis, Nottingham, 
West, and Brookline formed a second battalion; these two bat- 
talions constituted the Fifth Eegiment. The companies in 
the towns of Concord, Pembroke, and Bow formed one battal- 
ion; the companies in the towns of Loudon, Canterbury, and 
Northfield formed a second battalion; these two battalions con- 
stituted the Eleventh Eegiment. The companies in the towns 
of Derryfield (Manchester), G-offstown, Dunbarton, and Bed- 
ford formed one battalion; the companies in the towns of New 
Boston and Weare formed a second battalion, and these two 
battalions constituted the Ninth Regiment. 

The color and fashion of the uniform of the regular in- 
fantry was determined by the commander-in-chief, with the 
result that they were not uniformed at all, but wore suits of 
whatever color or cut their tastes dictated or their means al- 
lowed. The commissioned officers of these ununiformed com- 
panies, however, were clothed in a military garb, with epau- 
lettes and waving plumes the bright colors of which rendered 


them strikingly conspicuous in contrast with the more sober 
colors of the rank and file of their company. 

The independent, or volunteer companies, were however 
thoroughly uniformed. Some of the uniforms, with their bril- 
liant colors and elaborate adornments, were, to my boyish eyes 
at least, marvels of elegance and beauty. What could be more 
beautiful than those red coats faced and trimmed with yellow, 
those white trousers with the broad stripe on the leg, those 
bell-crowned caps over which waved the white plume with a 
red tip. We risk nothing in saying that those uniforms with 
their gorgeous colors were in strong contrast with the som- 
ber hues of the uniforms of the militia of 1903. But it is no 
less true that to the ordinary boy the soldier is imposing, grand 
and magnificent in a direct ratio with the brilliancy and gor- 
geousness of his uniform. 

From 1845 to 1850 was a period of transition when the old 
flint-lock musket was being gradually superseded by the gun 
with the percussion cap lock. The revised statutes required 
all non-commissioned officers and privates of infantry, light in- 
fantry and grenadiers to be armed with a good musket with a 
flint lock and two spare flints, or a musket with a percussion 
lock and a box containing not less than twenty-five percussion 
caps. He must also be provided with a steel or iron ramrod 
and suitable bayonet, priming wire and brush, scabbard and 
belt, and a cartridge box that would contain twenty-four car- 
tridges suited to the^bore of his musket, and knapsack and can- 
teen. And every non-commissioned officer and private who 
appeared on parade not equipped according to these require- 
ments was fined for each article in which he was deficient: for 
a gun, 80c; ramrod, 20c; bayonet, scabbard and belt, 25c; 
two flints, 10c; priming wire and brush, 10c; cartridge box, 
25c; knapsack, 20c; and canteen, 10c 

The Ninth, or, as it was generally called, the Old Ninth 
Regiment, comprising the companies in tin 1 towns of Goffs- 
town, Dunbarton, Bedford, New Boston, Manchester, and 


Weare, rendezvoused for many years at Goffstown. The mus- 
ter grounds were sometimes west of the village near the cem- 
etery, at other times on the broad level plains near the Taggart 
place. Fifty-five years ago Goffstown musters were noted all 
over the state. There was no other event in the whole year 
looked forward to with such eager anticipation. Not only to 
the soldiers participating in the military manoeuvres were these 
musters occasions of great interest, but to their wives, chil- 
dren or sweethearts as well. All the companies except those 
from Manchester were made up of men from the rural dis- 
tricts, and it was no ordinary occasion when father, brother 
or lover donned the bright colors of his uniform and joined 
the martial parade, and became, to them, an important part 
of the imposing pageant. The happy anticipation of behold- 
ing this impressive display and joining in its festivities light- 
ened many an arduous task through the long summer months. 

The state made no provision for the transportation of the 
militia to or from the place of muster. Upon that day all 
roads led to Goffstown. Long before dawn the thorough- 
fares were alive with men, women, and children, soldiers and 
civilians, pedlers, fakirs, and showmen, some on foot, some 
on horseback and some in carriages, all anxious to witness, 
or participate in, the first act of the great military drama. 

The sun was not far on its course these muster days when 
the orderly sergeant marshaled the men of his company in 
line and received the commissioned officers. 'A little later, 
with the accompaniment of music of fife and drum the morn- 
ing march was commenced. About eight o'clock the regimen- 
tal line was formed and the line officers received. The col- 
onel, the majors, the visiting brigadier general and other 
mounted officers now rode upon the field. It is unfortunate 
and much to be regretted that photography at that time was 
an art unknown. The pen can but poorly portray the im- 
pressive grandeur of the scene as it appeared to the eyes of the 
country boy of half a century ago. How those fiery, mettle- 


some steeds reared and plunged beneath their martial riders 
as the inspiring music of fife and drum swelled and rolled 
out on the crisp autumn air. What an embodiment of state- 
ly dignity was that group of officers with their gay trappings, 
gold epaulettes and waving plumes. Not a few of those very 
officers and many of the men, in years which were to come, 
displayed on real battlefields the highest courage and the no- 
blest valor in the service of their country. 

Most of the forenoon was occupied in drilling and inspect- 
ing the troops. In the afternoon came the sham fight or 
mock battle. This was the great event of the day. The piece 
de resistance, as it were, of the entertainment. These sham 
battles not unfrequently developed into real fights owing to 
the ambition of some of the companies to establish their repu- 
tation for valor and bravery. I am not aware, however, that 
the fertility of the soil upon that field of Mars at Gofi'stown 
was very materially enhanced by the blood there shed. 

It is not surprising that in the turmoil and confusion of 
these engagements some of the raw recruits became somewhat 
flustered and excited. So it happened that Jonathan Digh- 
ton loaded his musket every time the order was given, but in 
the excitement of the fray, neglecting to prime it properly, it 
was not discharged when the order was given to fire. At 
length, after having two or three charges in the old musket, 
well rammed down, he did prime it and fired. The result 
was more disastrous to the man behind the gun than to those 
in front of it. If Jonathan had received his wounds in legi- 
timate warfare, in defense of his country, he would have 
been entitled to a pension for total disability. 

Jonathan Dighton inherited his military spirit and equip- 
ment from his father, Silas Dighton, who was a veteran of 
the war of 1812. Although in my youth the old soldier was 
by age exempt from military duty, it was his invariable cus- 
tom to attend all military trainings and musters. On these 
occasions il was his special delight to regale the soldiers with 



accounts of his prowess displayed in actual warfare. If 
plicit reliance can be placed upon his statements, and I have 
no statistics to confute them, the happy outcome of the war 
of 1812 was owing, almost entirely, to Silas Dighton's valor. 
One little incident illustrating the estimation in which he was 
held by the general commanding, as related in his, Silas Digh- 
ton's own words, was this: "The British were drawn up in 
line over there, twice our number. We Americans were here, 
facing them. Our general rode up in front of our line. He 
stopped in front of my regiment and shouted out, 'Is Silas 
Dighton in the ranks?' I answered back, 'I am here/ and the 
general said, 'Let the battle begin/ " It is needless to add that 
the British were entirely annihilated in that engagement. 

I wish here to acknowledge the obligation I am under to my 
brother for an incident in his experience which will serve as 
a side light upon the character of these old-time musters. Be- 
ing warned for the first time to appear armed and equipped 
as the law directed, he resurrected the old flint-lock musket 
which had reposed in the family archives ever since the war of 
1812, and devoted all his spare time for two weeks in his en- 
deavor to get the formidable weapon into a condition such 
that it would pass muster. With knapsack, cartridge box, 
bayonet and canteen, with musket on shoulder, long before 
sunrise he started for the muster field. He dates from that 
day his belief in the total depravity of inanimate things. As 
he expresses it, when the inspector examined that gun on 
which he had labored so faithfully the blamed flints wouldn't 
strike fire, and much to his chagrin and financial embarrass- 
ment he was fined seventy cents. 

These musters were often infested by gangs of gamblers and 
light-fingered gentry who fleeced the unsuspecting farmer 
most unmercifully. At the muster of September 24, 1839, 
this class became so obnoxious that the Manchester Rifle com- 
pany, under the command of Capt. Ira W. Moore, undertook 
to drive them from the field. The gamblers resisted and 


something of a conflict ensued, (lining which one, Elbridge 
Ford, struck Jeremiah Johnson on the head with a club. The 
day following Johnson died. Ford was arrested, tried and 
convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to the state prison 
for five years. After serving three years he was pardoned by 
Governor Hubbard. The preliminary trial was held in the old 
tavern on the north river road, a house still standing oppo- 
site the Whitney estate. The presiding justice at the trial 
was Hon. Isaac Kiddie, father of John A. Riddle, Esq. 

From these trainings and musters of olden times persons 
having conscientious scruples against bearing arms were ex- 
empt upon the payment of three dollars, and those holding 
certain offices, judges and clerks of courts, physicians, clergy- 
men, and attendants upon the insane employed in the Xew 
Hampshire Asylum for the Insane, on the payment of two 

At the company trainings, or little trainings as they were 
termed, the company assembled somewhere within the limits 
of its bounds. For some years previous to the repeal of the 
old militia laws these trainings became somewhat unpopular 
and degenerated into mere burlesques. Members of the un- 
uniformed, or as they were euphoniously designated, "Slam 
bang/ 7 "String bean/ 7 or "Flood wood" companies, appeared 
on parade in garb and accoutrement rivaling the grotesque 
trappings of a company of "Antiques and Horribles." Mili- 
tary discipline was lamentably lax. It is said that on some of 
these occasions, as the day advanced, and the men had par- 
taken freely of the refreshments, that the only way the cap- 
tain could succeed in forming his company into the semblance 
of a straight line was to back them up against some resisting 
barrier like a fence or barn. 

One would naturally infer from the wording of the old 
warrants that drill in military tactics was a matter of secon- 
dary importance. I copy from the original in my possession, 
one of these documents: 


"Antrim, June 10, 1798. 
"To James Steele, Sergeant: — 

"You are hereby required to warn all the training band 
from James Steel's Sr. to Michael Cochlan's and as far south- 
erly as Israel Cochran's, with the alarm list, to meet at my 
house on Thursday the 7th day of this instant in order to 
drink some grog. 

"Benj. Gregg, Ensign." 

There was probably never a decade in the history of New 
Hampshire when the military spirit was at so low an ebb .as 
during the ten years immediately preceding the Civil war. 
By an act of the legislature of July 5, 1851, the old militia 
system of the state was abolished. Under the new law no ac- 
tive duty was required of the militia except in case of war or 
riot or in other emergencies when the civil officers were un- 
able to enforce the execution of the laws. In such cases the 
volunteer companies were to be first called out. The an- 
nual enrollment was kept up in a rather perfunctory manner, 
and the divisions, regiments, and companies were required 
to be officered. But there was such a lack of interest in the 
matter, such an absence of military spirit, that in 1859 the only 
organized regiment in New Hampshire was within the third 
brigade, the officers of which were: Col. John H. Gage, Nash- 
ua; Lieut. -Col. John B. Perkins, Hollis; Maj. Gilbert Wad- 
leigh, Milford; Adj. Charles E. Page, Nashua. 

The only companies in the state whose officers held com- 
missions the same year were the four companies of the Amos- 
keag Veterans Battalion, The Wilson Bifles, Keene, The Gil- 
manton Artillery, The Lyndeboro Artillery, The New Castle 
Light Guards. 

Such was the ill-organized and unsoldierly military force of 
New Hampshire when the terrible storm of civil war broke 
over the land. 

It is outside the limits of this paper to dwell upon the no- 


ble and patriotic response of the citizen soldiery of New Hamp- 
shire to their country's call for aid in the hour of her direst 
need, nor need we recall the valor and sacrifice of those men 

"Whose labors gave 
Their names a memory that defies the grave." 

More than fifty years have elapsed since those old militia 
laws were repealed. No other half-century in the world's his- 
tory has witnessed such wonderful advancement in the arts 
of war as well as those of peace. The old flint-lock, smooth 
bore, muzzle-loading musket is now preserved only as an heir- 
loom or curio in some museum of antiquities. It has been su- 
perseded by those terribly destructive weapons, the Mauser 
and Krag-Jorgunsen rifles. Fortifications which were be- 
lieved to be impregnable fifty years ago are allowed to remain 
today simply as barracks for soldiers or show places for the 
entertainment of the public, while the old cannon that were 
considered irresistible are left in place as interesting relics of 
the past. 

If it is true, as claimed by the students of the theory and 
art of warfare, that the chances and probabilities of war oc- 
curring between the great powers are in an inverse ratio to 
the destructiveness of the implements of warfare, it would 
seem that we might anticipate the time to be in the no distant 
future when there shall be no more "wars and rumors of wars," 
when shall come that happy era of "Peace on earth, good will 
toward men." 



Colonel, John Wells. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Daniel Worthley, Goffstown. 
Major, E. Whiting, New Boston. 
Adjutant, Andrew J. Dow, Bedford. 
Quartermaster, D. Farmer, Goffstown. 



Colonel, Epliraim Whiting, New Boston. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, John Gregg, New Boston. 
Major, James Cram, Weare. 


Quartermaster, Daniel Taggart, Goffstown. 


Colonel, Ephraim Whiting, New Boston. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, John Gregg, New Boston. 
Major, James Cram, Weare. 
Adjutant, Lucius Bowman, Bedford. 
Quartermaster, Daniel Taggart, Goffstown. 


Colonel, John Gregg, New Boston. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Jason Philbrick, Weare. 
Major, Samuel B. Hammond, New Boston. 
Adjutant, John C. Easton, New Boston. 
Quartermaster, Henry C. Gould, New Boston. 


Colonel, John Philbrick, Weare. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, S. B. Hammond, Dunbarton. 
Major, Ira W. Moore, Manchester. 
Adjutant, Elbridge A. Bailey, East Weare. 
Quartermaster, Mark Colburn, Weare. 


Colonel, Jason Philbrick, Weare. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Ira W. Moore, Manchester. 
Major, Thomas E. Worthley, Goffstown. 
Adjutant, Elbridge A. Bailey, East Weare. 
Quartermaster, Mark Colburn, Weare. 



Colonel, Ira W. Moore, Manchester. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas E. Worthley, Goffstown. 
Major, Albe Morrill, Weare. 
Adjutant, George P. Mixer, Manchester. 
Quartermaster, John M. Parker, Goffstown. 


Colonel, Ira W. Moore, Manchester. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Thomas E. Worthley, Goffstown. 
Major, Albe Morrill, Weare. 
Adjutant, George P. Mixer, Manchester. 
Quartermaster, John M. Parker, Goffstown. 


Colonel, Thomas E. Worthley, Goffstown. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Albe Morrill, Weare. 
Major, James M. Tuttle. 
Adjutant, Walter M. Cochran, Manchester. 
Quartermaster, Charles W. Eowell, Manchester. 


Colonel, Thomas E. Worthley, Goffstown. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Albe Morrill, Weare. 
Major, Stephen C. Hall. 
Adjutant, Walter M. Cochran, Manchester. 
Quartermaster, Ebenezer Hadley, Manchester. 


Colonel, Albe Morrill, Weare. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Stephen C. Hall, Manchester. 
Major, Ezra C. Clement, Weare. 
Adjutant, Elbridge C. Gilford, Manchester. 
Quartermaster, George W. Eiddle, Manchester. 



Nearly two hundred years ago, when one of the principal 
occupations of the men in this part of the country was that of 
dividing among themselves the land that of right belonged to 
others, the government of Massachusetts granted eight hun- 
dred acres to Samuel Thaxter in what is now our city of Man- 
chester. The exact boundaries of this grant were indefinite, 
as it was the custom in those days of not counting swamp, 
sandy or other worthless land as a part of the grant. If a man's 
lot was one hundred acres it might cover five hundred or more 
acres, for they intended to have one hundred acres of tillable 
land, and, as the land was not theirs, they usually took pretty 
good measure. In the Thaxter grant the surveyor adds 
"thirty acres for sagg of Chane and fifty acres for a pond." 
As this grant originally ran three miles east from the river, 
the pond mentioned was without doubt Stevens's pond on the 
Bridge-street extension, a very liberal allowance for this small 
sheet of water. Human nature was much the same then as 
now. A part of the Thaxter grant afterwards became the 
home farm of Gen. John Stark, and was by him divided among 
his descendants, and. the purpose of this paper is to trace as 
far as practicable the boundary lines of the different farms as 
he laid them out, and the various owners thereof to the pres- 
ent time. In the southern portion of his farm the land has 
been so subdivided that this is impossible, but some of the 
northerly sections can be traced from the General down to 
the present owners. 




Archibald Stark, the father of Gen. John Stark, and the 
ancestor of the Stark family in New Hampshire, was horn 
at Glasgow, Scotland, in 1697, and received his education in 
the university of that city. In all probability he was a de- 
scendant of one of the German soldiers of that name, sent over 
to England by the Duchess of Burgundy about four hundred 
years ago to support a pretender to the English throne then 
occupied by King Henry VII. The invading army was de- 
feated and the survivors fled to Scotland, where many of them 
settled permanently. 

When quite young, Archibald Stark went with his father 
to Londonderry, in the north part of Ireland, where he mar- 
ried Eleanor Nichols, the daughter of a fellow immigrant 
from Scotland. In 1720 he embarked for America in com- 
pany with many of his countrymen, and after a tedious voy- 
age, arrived in Boston late in autumn. Many of them were 
ill with smallpox, and they were not permitted to land, but 
went to the present town of TViscasset, on the Maine coast, 
where they spent the winter. The following year he joined 
the Scotch-Irish settlers in our neighboring town of London- 
derry, where he lived until 1736, and where his famous son 
was born. During the latter year he had the misfortune to 
have his buildings destroyed by fire, and instead of rebuilding 
there he came to Manchester that fall with his family and 
settled on the Thaxter grant at Amoskeag falls. 

He built the house now standing at the east end of the 
Amoskeag bridge, which was occupied for many years by the 
widow of Jonas Page and until her decease during the past 
summer and where her daughter still resides. 

As the means for transporting lumber on land was then 
very limited, they cut the trees for the frame on the bluff 
just east of where the house stands, hewed them to the proper 
size and shape, and rolled them down the hill to the place 


where they were to be used. General Stark was then but 
eight years old, but for eighty-six years thereafter Manchester 
was his home. 

Archibald Stark died in Manchester in 1758 and was buried 
in what was known as the Christian brook cemetery, which 
was situated about where the north end of the Manchester lo- 
comotive works now stands. The writer well remembers 
when the bodies in this cemetery were removed. The bluff 
on which it was situated was some thirty or more feet high and 
close to Canal street, and was leveled to make way for a street 
that was put through just north of the locomotive works as 
then built. This street was afterwards discontinued so that 
the locomotive works could enlarge their plant and still have 
the same under one roof. A low slate headstone in the south- 
westerly corner of the Valley cemetery marks the spot where 
the remains of Archibald Stark now repose, and bears this in- 

"Herb Lyes the Body of Mr. 


1758 Aged 61 years." 
gen. john stark. 

After the death of Archibald Stark his land was divided 
among his four sons: William, John, Samuel, and Archibald. 
The part allotted to his son John ran from about where Brook 
street now is on the south, to the river on the west, the- north 
line of land now owned by Charles E. Rowell, George H. 
Brown, and Halbert K Bond on the north, and the original 
Chester line on the east. This Chester line was very near the 
westerly line of Derryfield park. The present line between 
Hooksett (Hooksett being set off from Chester in 1822) and 
Manchester runs from a point on the east bank of the Mer- 
rimack river, near Martin's ferry, in a southerly direction un- 



til it comes to the Hooksett road just above Campbell street 
and near the first group of houses on the Hooksett road north 
of Dorr's pond, when it turns sharply to the east and con- 
tinues in that direction until it crosses the old Londonderry 
turnpike a short distance north of the railroad station at Lake 
Massabesic. Originally this line from Martin's ferry con- 
tinued straight on south from the point where it was deflected 
at the Hooksett road, and passed through Manchester a little 
west of the height of land on Hanover street hill until 
it reached a point near the Elliott hospital, where it became 
very irregular. 

The life of General Stark is so well known that it would 
be needless to repeat it here. When not engaged in warfare 
with the French and Indians he lived the life of a prosperous 
farmer and business man, and was honored with many posi- 
tions of trust by his friends and neighbors. He was a leading 
man in this section of the country, and had a part in nearly 
all the town's transactions prior to the Revolutionary war. 
After the stirring events of that war he was again actively en- 
gaged in peaceful pursuits. At one time he with two others 
owned the entire town of Dunbarton, then known as Starks- 
town, where he cut off and sawed into lumber much of the old 
growth then standing there. 

But it is not the purpose of this paper to do with aught 
but his homestead about Amoskeag falls. As he got along 
in years, and the cares and worries of his large estate became 
burdensome, he gave much of his land to his sons and grand- 
sons. By far the larger part of his home farm he gave to his 
son John and the children of John. 


To his son John, 2d, the General gave the land bounded by 
Brook street on the south, Webster street on the north, and 
running from the old Chester line to the river. This lot con- 


tained the original Archibald Stark house, and John Stark, 
2d, took up his residence therein. This has come to be by far 
the most valuable part of the General's estate. Not only are 
there extensive mill privileges now utilized, but the locks at 
the falls are situated on this section as well as many of the 
most costly residences in the city. On this tract of land, in 
1795, Judge Samuel Blodgett built his house It was situ- 
ated on the bank of the river back of the Amoskeag paper 
mills, and here, later, Frederick G-. Stark lived and kept a 
store. This house was taken down in 18T0. 

Christian brook runs through this farm very near its south- 
ern boundary. It received its name from an Indian by the 
name of Christian who had his wigwam on the southern bank. 
The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company formerly had a res- 
ervoir on this brook just east of Elm street between Pennacook 
and Sagamore streets, but late years this has been abandoned 
and the brook now runs in a culvert nearly its entire length. 

The old fair grounds formed no inconsiderable part of this 
farm. Here for many years were held state and county fairs 
and horse trots innumerable, and on two occasions at least 
the New England Agricultural society held its meeting here. 
Of the old trotting track but a single stretch of about seventy- 
five feet now remains, and that is on the vacant lot on Chest- 
nut street next south of the Webster-street schoolhouse. 

During the Civil war the Fourth, Seventh and Eighth regi- 
ments of New Hampshire volunteers and the First Light 
Battery camped on the fair grounds while they were being 
organized, and afterwards the United States government es- 
tablished there the Webster hospital for the care of wounded 
soldiers, which was used as such until the close of the war and 
for some time afterwards. 

The writer well remembers a bitter cold winter day when 
Gen. Benjamin F. Butler reviewed the Seventh and Eighth 
regiments here prior to the departure of the latter regiment 
with him to Ship island on his New Orleans expedition. 


While the soldiers were encamped here the water in the 
Amoskeag company's reservoir on Christian brook was raised, 
a high fence erected on the east side of Elm street to keep 
out the gaze of passers by, and the soldiers of the various 
regiments and the battery marched down there for their ablu- 

The grounds were divided into house lots by the Amoskeag 
company, and those on Elm street sold at auction in 1877. 

The first house built on the fair grounds as a residence was 
by our vice-president, Josiah Carpenter, that same year, at 
the corner of Elm and Sagamore streets, and is the same one 
now owned and occupied by him. It was then considered so 
far out in the country that some of his friends told him he 
might as well build in Hooksett and done with it, but subse- 
quent events have shown that Mr. Carpenter's judgment was 

In 1754 a road was laid out from Amoskeag falls to Man- 
chester center which passed through a part of this farm and 
was known as the Falls road. It ran from the falls diagonally 
across the lot between Elm and Canal streets, through the lot 
now occupied by Judge David Cross, and thence in a south- 
easterly direction through the Governor Straw lot. The fine 
old elm trees at the southwest of Judge Cross's house stood 
on the side of this road. The house that used to stand where 
the judge's house now is was occupied by James M. Webber 
for many years and until it gave way to the present structure 
in 1869. " 

The Webber house was moved to what was then known as 
the sand bank, where it is now standing just north of Bridge 
street and about half ' way from Elm to Canal street. At 
that time the entire tract west of Elm and north of Bridge 
streets nearly up to Brook street was nothing but sand, the 
only building thereon besides the Campbell house and the 
locomotive works being a small unpainted structure, black- 
ened with age, standing out in the middle of this sandy waste, 


not far from the foot of Pearl street and last occupied by 
Moses D. Stokes. 

On the Falls road a small schoolhouse formerly stood just 
north of Christian brook, but it was burned down in August, 
1859, and the scholars transferred to a room in the old Stark 
house at the end of the bridge, until the Blodget-street school- 
house was built. This old schoolhouse was erected by private 
subscription in 1795, but was taken by the town some three 
years later. 

The knoll where the Gov. Frederick Smyth house now 
stands was nothing but a pile of sand covered with poplar, 
willow, and other native trees which thrive in such places, 
and between the knoll and Elm street was a swamp where the 
boys of the north end used to amuse themselves out of school 
hours by catching frogs, etc. South of the Smyth house, 
just across Salmon street, was quite a rise of land, on the west 
slope of which stood a fine orchard which in the fall of the 
year was a sore temptation to the youths of the neighborhood, 
and which it is feared they did not always withstand. But 
now orchard, knoll, and swamp have disappeared, and nothing 
remains to make the spot familiar to old timers except a few 
of the poplar trees on the Smyth estate. 

As General Stark advanced in years he was unable to care 
for his property, and so his son, John, 2d, moved to the Gen- 
eral's residence farther up the River road, leaving his eldest 
daughter Emily and her husband, John G. Moore, at the old 
house at Amoskeag falls to carry on the farm there. In 1821 
John Stark, 2d, sold this place to George Clark. After sell- 
ing a small parcel on the east side of the River road to Fred- 
erick Kimball, Mr. Clark sold the balance to the Amoskeag 
Manufacturing company at the time they were acquiring title 
to the land on this side of the river. About 1838 Mr. Kim- 
ball built a house on his land immediately north of the Fred- 
erick Smyth lot, which was long used as a tavern and fre- 
quented by boatmen on the river, and which is still standing 


and owned by his grandson, Fred K. Ramsey, to whom it has 
descended. He also built the house now standing at the 
southeast corner of Webster street and the River road and 
owned by Walter M. Parker. Here Samuel Hall, Jr., lived 
until he purchased the Joseph M. Rowell place on the west 
side of the River road, just north of Webster street, when he 
moved to the latter place and resided thereon until his death. 
His son, George E., now owns and occupies this place. It was 
a part of the Ray farm, w r hich will be described later. 

John Stark, 2d's, wife was Polly Huse. His children seemed 
to be especially favored by the old General in the disposition 
of his home estate, nearly all receiving a liberal slice thereof. 
They were: 

Gradus Bakeman, who married Ann Davis, a grand-aunt of 
the writer hereof. 

Emily, who married John G. Moore and lived on the home 
place at the falls. 

John, 3d, who married Sallie Pollard. 

Betsy, who married Samuel P. Kidder and lived in the house 
now standing on Canal street just south of the Manchester 
Locomotive works. Here their children were born: Samuel 
B., Elizabeth, who married Nathaniel E. Morrill, John S., 
Mary W., who married ex-Governor Moody Currier, Susan S., 
who married David Palmer, and Joseph, all now deceased, the 
latter being our vice-president at the time of his death. 

Frederick G., who married Nancy Gillis. 

Mary, who married Josiah Gillis, a brother to the wife of 
Frederick G. 

Susan, who married John Gamble. 

Charles, who married Fannie Kimball. 

Albert, who married Susan Russell and was father of Fred- 
erick G., who afterwards lived in 'Squog, and grandfather of 
Frederick R., the real estate dealer, Dr. Gillis, Dr. Maurice A. 
of Goffstown, and Augusta, who married Charles Smith. 

Samuel, who married Betsy Griffin. 


Caleb, who married Mary Saywood. 

Louisa, who married Albert Roby and is now living in this 
city at the age of ninety-fonr. 

The two older ones, Gradus and Emily, were born at their 
great-grandfather Page's house in Dunbarton, while all the 
rest except Louisa, the youngest, were born in the old house 
at the end of Amoskeag bridge. She was born in the Gen- 
eral's house on the river road farther north. 


The land next north of that given by the General to his son 
John he gave to John Ray, whom he had taken when a small 
boy and brought up as one of his family. All the old settlers 
with whom the writer has consulted regarding this paper re- 
fer to him as "Johnny" Ray. This lot extended from Web- 
ster street to a point just south of Clark's ledge on the River 
road, and from the river to the old Chester line. The north 
line of Frank Preston's land on Elm street is the north line 
of this lot. Mr. Ray lived in a house on what is now known 
as Riverside, or the Colonel Eastman place, about opposite the 
Thayer residence. The old house has long since disappeared. 

Through this farm the Ray brook flows. This brook rises 
in Chase's meadow in Hooksett and flows into the river a 
short distance above Amoskeag falls. In the early days a saw- 
mill was built on this brook where Dorr's pond now is, pre- 
sumably by Archibald Stark soon after he moved here, and 
it is said that the foundations thereof can now be seen at low 
water. There has been some controversy as to whether or 
not this was the historic mill shut down by General Stark 
upon receipt of the news of the Lexington fight. There used 
also to be a bark mill on this brook on the east side of the 
River road, but it has long since disappeared. 

"Johnny" Ray's children were James, who married Maria 
Blodgett, a granddaughter of General Stark, Col. John Ray, 


Stark Kay, Jere. Ray, Russell Ray, Edward Ray, Polly, who 
married Samuel Hall, Sr., Axie, who married a Whitney, 
Betsy, who married Moses Wells, and Sally, who married Jo- 
siah Hall. Stark Ray was the father of Rev. John W. Ray, at 
one time principal of the high school here and who built and 
for many years owned and occupied the house now owned and 
occupied by Mrs. Horace D. Corliss, at the northeast corner 
of Elm and Webster streets. 

During the latter years of "Johnny" Ray's life he was cared 
for by his son, Colonel John, and at his death the property 
became the colonel's. During the lifetime of the latter the 
estate was kept practically intact, but when he died leaving 
no children it went to his brothers and sisters and their chil- 
dren. Joseph M. Rowell, who married Jeannette Hall, a 
granddaughter of Colonel Ray and a sister of Samuel Hall, 
Jr., had the property between the River road and the river 
and from Webster street to the south line of Riverside. This 
includes the present estates of George E. Hall and Alonzo 
Elliott. Gilman H. Kimball also purchased of the Ray heirs 
a small tract on the east side of the River road, not far above 
Webster street, and built the cottage house now standing 
there, into which he moved upon his marriage and where he 
lived for several years. In 1863 Mr. Kimball's daughter mar- 
ried Edwin H. Hobbs, and this place was owned and occupied 
by them for some years. The Ray heirs also sold to James 0. 
Adams, for a long time superintendent of schools in this city, 
a tract next north of Riverside and extending from the River 
road to the river. Mr. Adams sold this land to John Kelley, 
whose heirs now own the property. The next land above the 
Kelley land was purchased by James 0. Clark and is now 
owned and occupied by the Wheeler family, who purchased 
it of Mr. Clark. The tract of land between Chestnut street 
and the River road and extending from the south line of 
Clark's ledge to Clarke street, was bought by Samuel Hall, 
Jr. This land now has many owners, but a part still re- 


mains the property of Mr. Hall's son, George E., the well- 
known druggist. 

On the Eay farm are now many elegant estates, among 
which may be mentioned: 

Raybrocik, situated on both sides of Ray brook, between Elm 
and Chestnut streets, and south of Clarke street, and contains 
about ten acres of land. This was a part of the estate ac- 
quired from the Eay heirs by Dustin Marshall in 1851, and 
was by him sold to William C. Clarke in 1853. Two years 
later Mr. Clarke built the house now standing there and in 
which he lived until he sold to Cyrus Dunn in 1867. From 
Mr. Dunn the property passed into the possession of the 
Amoskeag bank, and the bank sold it to Henry Chandler, who 
resided there until his death and whose heirs now own the 

BrooMurst, the present home of Alonzo Elliott, comprises 
some seven acres of land running from the River road to the 
river, lying next south of Riverside, and through which Ray 
brook flows. This land was purchased of Col. Arthur M. 
Eastman's heirs by Mr. Elliott in 1888, and the house erected 
in 1892. This land was bought by Colonel Eastman of Jo- 
seph M. Rowell. 

Riverside, the home of Col. Arthur M. Eastman during the 
latter years of his life and now owned by his grandchildren, 
was purchased by him of Moses Wells, whose wife was Betsy 
Ray, a sister of Colonel John, from whom she inherited the 
estate. The house now standing thereon was erected by Col- 
onel Eastman about 1860. 

Besides the foregoing there are many fine residences, among 
which may be mentioned those of United States Senator 
Henry E. Burnham, Street Commissioner George H. Stearns, 
Dr. Chauncey W. Clement, Dr. H. D. W. Carvelle, Judge 
George H. Bingham, Chief Engineer Thomas W. Lane, Sen- 
ator James Lightbody, Dr. Frederick Perkins, Alderman Fred 
K. Ramsey, George E. Hall, Frank W. Fitts, Frank Preston, 


the late George \V. Thayer, and the late Charles W. Temple. 
When George Clark sold the John Stark, 2d, farm to the 
Amoskeag company, he bought of John Stark, 3d, a strip of 
his land twenty-five rods wide, lying south of the south line 
of Stark park and running from the river to the Chester 
line. On this land Mr. Clark built a house on the west side 
of the River road, and very near Stark park, where he lived 
until his death. This house was afterwards moved farther 
down the River road on to what was a part of the Ray farm, 
now the Wheeler land, and is occupied as a tenement house, 
and on its former site the Davis house was built. When 
George Clark died his nephew, James Otis Clark, bought out 
the other heirs, and most of that part of the farm west of the 
River road belongs to his daughter Carlie. That part of the 
Clark land between the River road and Elm street, except 
where the ledge is, belongs to Daniel Readey, and the east 
of Elm street has many owners. 


Next north of the land given to John Ray the General 
gave to his grandson John, the son of his son John. This 
lot ran from the south side of Clark's ledge to what is now 
the north line of Stark park, and, as with the preceding 
grants, from the river to the old Chester line. John Stark. 
3d, married Sallie Pollard, and in 1816 he built the house 
on the River road at the brow of the hill, where he resided 
until his death. A few years ago, and just before her death, 
his daughter Elizabeth remodeled the old house, but re- 
tained most of its original features. It is at present occupied 
by Col. Arthur E. Clarke, proprietor of the Manchester Mir- 
ror. Just east of this house, about on the site of the present 
residence of George E. Gould, John Stark, 3d, started to open 
a ledge. By the falling of a derrick his son Thomas was 
killed, thereupon all work on the ledge was suspended and 
was never renewed. 


A little north of the John Stark, 3d, house on the Eiver 
road, his son, Augustus H., built a residence for himself, 
where he lived until his death in the summer of 1902, and 
where his widow now resides. 

Besides the above children John Stark, 3d, had a son Ben- 
jamin F., who married Harriett Kimball, and who received 
land out of the northerly part of the Archibald Stark farm. 

On the section given to John Stark, 3d, was located the 
Stark burying-ground, where rest the remains of the general 
and many of his descendants. It is situated on a bluff about 
half way from the Eiver road to the river, overlooking the 
river up and down for quite a distance. On the anniversary 
of the battle of Bennington, 1829, a granite obelisk with his 
name inscribed thereon was here erected to his memory by 
his family. This stone was of Concord granite and was hewed 
and fashioned by the inmates of the state prison at Concord. 
Several bills have been introduced into Congress appropriat- 
ing money for a monument to be placed over his grave, but 
for various reasons they have all failed of a passage by both 
houses, and consequently nothing has been done 

In 1876 Augustus H. and Elizabeth Stark, the surviving 
children of John Stark, 3d, gave to the city of Manchester 
about two acres of land, on which the burying-ground was 
located. The description of the land and the restrictions 
placed thereon are as follows: 

"Beginning at a stake standing at the intersection of the 
northerly line of Trenton street with the westerly line of 
Bennington street as shown on a map of the northerly portion 
of Manchester, dated 1875, said map having been adopted by 
the city councils of said city, October 19, 1875, as a guide 
for the future construction of streets in the section embraced 
within its limits; thence running northerly by said Benning- 
ton street two hundred and fifty feet; thence westerly by 
Princeton street three hundred and fifty feet; thence southerly 
by Lexington street two hundred and fifty feet; thence east- 


erly by said Trenton street three hundred and fifty feet to 
the bound begun at: containing eighty-seven thousand five 
hundred square feet. The foregoing tract of land is known 
on said map as Monument square, and contains the family 
burial ground of Major-Gen. John Stark. This convey- 
ance is made upon the condition that said city shall within 
three years from the date hereof properly enclose said prem- 
ises with a suitable enclosure and shall thenceforth at all 
times properly secure, protect and preserve said premises 
with the monuments thereon erected or that hereafter may 
be erected; and that said city shall not alien or convey said 
premises to any person or corporation but shall forever keep 
and maintain the same as a public ground or square to be 
beautified and adorned from time to time as may seem prop- 
er and reasonable; and said premises shall never be occupied 
for any purpose whatever inconsistent with the uses aforesaid. 
A burial place with proper space for monuments within 
the present enclosure is hereby reserved for the following in- 
dividuals, to wit: The grantors hereof and three other persons 
whose near relatives are now interred therein. And it is 
further provided that said city shall maintain a suitable en- 
closure around the burial lot upon said premises or such en- 
closure may be provided by the friends of those interred 
therein, the design or plan being first approved by said city. 
Provided, however, that if it shall ever be deemed expedient 
to convey said premises to the state of New Hampshire to be 
preserved and protected by said state, said city may convey the 
same to said state upon the conditions herein expressed and 
with such other conditions as said city may think it necessary 
to impose. The right is hereby granted to said city or its 
employees to pass and repass over said Princeton street be- 
tween the River road and said premises for the purpose of 
carrying out the provisions of this deed. And whenever said 
granted premises shall be enclosed as herein provided then 
said Princeton street together with the streets surrounding 


said square as indicated on said map shall become the prop- 
erty of said city, but they shall be used as public highways 
and for no other purposes whatever." 

Subsequently the entire section of this farm from the 
Eiver road to the river was acquired by the city, the deed 
from the Stark heirs being dated January 3, 1891. It con- 
tains about thirty acres, and is known as Stark park. The 
three restrictions contained in this last mentioned deed are: 

First. To be kept forever as a park and not to be con- 
veyed by said city unless to the state of New Hampshire or 
the United States for the same use. 

Second. No buildings to be erected thereon except such 
as are appropriate for park uses. 

Third. The city to expend on an average three hundred 
dollars a year on the same. 

Much has been done to beautify this spot, and at no dis- 
tant day it will be regarded as one of our most valued pos- 
sessions. Up to the time it was secured by the city this land 
had been in the possession of the Stark family since Archi- 
bald Stark came here in 1736. 

Besides the houses mentioned, many others adorn this sec- 
tion of land, among which stand prominently the residences 
of the late Charles T. Means, Alonzo H. Weston, Charles M. 
Floyd, Charles W. Bickford, Leander W. Gould, Edwin A. 
Stratton, Frank E. Putney, Harry J. Lawson, Norwin S. 
Bean, Daniel Readey, and Mrs. John B. Varick. 


North of the John Stark, 3d, land and east of the River 
road the General gave to his grandson Samuel, a son of 
John, 2d. This ran from the River road as far north as 
Rowell street and east to a point twenty-seven rods east of 
Union street. In 1821 Samuel Stark built the house now 
owned and occupied by the heirs of Malachi Dodge, and in 
this house our honored member, Charles Stark, was born in 


1822. His brothers and sisters were also born here. They 
were Harriett, Jerome, John, Amanda, who married William 
Burpee, and Sarah, who married Capt. Benjamin Eiehardson. 
The General also gave Samuel as a part of his farm about ten 
acres of land for a pasture, on the bank of the river adjoin- 
ing Stark park and running east to the land given to Susan 
Stark. The heirs of Samuel Stark sold this farm to George 
Aldrich in 1843, and it was afterwards owned by Phinehas 
Adams and John S. Yeaton, the latter of whom sold it to its 
present owners, viz.: The pasture land on the river to the 
state of Xew Hampshire to become a nart of the Industrial 
school farm, that part between the Kiver road and Union 
street to the Dodge family, and the land east of Union street 
to Horace Willey, who lives near the top of the Union street 


To Susan, the daughter of John Stark, 2d, was given five 
acres of land on the west side of the River road, adjoining 
Stark park on the north and running west to the land given 
her brother Samuel, and also five acres of land adjoining on 
the east the land given Samuel east of Union street. This 
latter piece is now owned by the widow of John S. Gamble 
and occupied by herself and her son Charles and family. 
Susan married John Gamble, and in 1837 they built the 
house on the River road piece of land, where they afterwards 
lived. The timber with which this house was constructed 
was cut from the five acre lot given Susan, where the Gam- 
bles now live. Susan's heirs sold the homestead on the Riv- 
er road to John Prince, and he sold it to the state of Xew 
Hampshire as a further addition to the Industrial school 
farm. The children of John and Susan Gamble were Elea- 
nor, John S., Susan S., who married Josiah W. Abbott, and 
Archibald. The two sons are now deceased, but both daugh- 
ters are now living and are residents of this city. 



The next lot north was the General's home place, and be- 
came the property of his grandson, Charles Stark, a son of 
John Stark, 2d. It contained about one hundred and sixty-five 
acres and ran from the river to the Chester line. On this 
place the General built his house in 1765, and here he lived 
until his death in 1822. The house was situated on the 
west side of the Eiver road and was destroyed by fire during 
the winter of 1865-66, while occupied by inmates of the 
Industrial school. The site of the old well was marked by 
Superintendent John C. Bay, and now is all that remains to 
show where the old hero's house stood. Tradition has it 
that the wall on the line of the River road by this farm was 
built by Revolutionary soldiers while awaiting orders from 
General Stark to proceed to the front. This wall on the 
Industrial school part has been removed, but on the Charles 
E. Rowell farm, next above, it still remains. 

That part of his farm east of Union street, comprising 
about sixty-five acres, Mr. Stark sold to Luther Campbell, 
who now owns the same. The house on this farm, occupied 
by Mr. Campbell for many years, situated on Union street 
next above the house of Horace Willey, formerly stood where 
the Elm house at Martin's ferry is now situated, but was moved 
to its present location by Mr. Campbell many years ago. 

In 1855 Mr. Stark sold for ten thousand dollars that part 
of his farm lying west of Union street, containing about one 
hundred acres, to the state of New Hampshire as a site for a 
proposed reform school. The building was begun in the 
spring of 1856 and finished in the fall of 1857 at a cost of 
thirty-four thousand dollars. Subsequently the land given by 
General Stark to his grandson Samuel, on the bank of the riv- 
er for a pasture, was purchased by the state for one thousand 
dollars, and thus the whole cost was forty-five thousand dol- 
lars. The house was dedicated in May, 1858. This building 


was burned December 20, 1865, and the children were removed 
to the General Stark homestead and the Gamble house until 
the present structure was ready for occupancy. The super- 
intendents of the school have been Brooks Shattuck, Isaac H. 
Jones, Edward Ingham, John C. Ray, and Tom W. Robinson, 
the present incumbent. 

The idea of a reform school appears to have originated with 
an eccentric character well known to the earlier inhabitants 
of our city, James McK. Wilkins. He was a lawyer and poli- 
tician of local repute, and for years had an office in what was 
known as the "old ark," a building situated at the corner of 
Elm and Amherst streets. By frugality and strict attention 
to business he amassed quite a fortune. He was a single man, 
lived in his office, boarded himself much of the time, and when 
not doing so patronizing only the cheapest restaurants and 
boarding houses. By his will his property was left to the state 
of K"ew Hampshire for a reform school, and from then until 
now the state has received an annual income from his bequest. 
His remains now lie in a triangular lot in the Valley cemetery, 
his monument is triangular and the lot enclosed in a triangu- 
lar iron fence without gate or other entrance. 

After selling his farm to the state Charles Stark bought of 
the Amoskeag company a small tract of land on the west side 
of the River road, about opposite the Frederick Kimball tav- 
ern, and here he built the house in which he lived the re- 
mainder of his days. It stands on the southwest corner of 
Webster street and the River road, and is owned by Eugene 
S. Whitney and occupied by Harry G. Clough. Mr. Stark's 
only child was Augusta, who married X. P. Whittemore, and 
after her decease her heirs sold this estate to Mr. Whitney. 


The Charles Stark part of the General's farm was only 
about half as wide on the east side of the River road as on the 
west, the north pari of the land east of the road being given 


to Frederick G. Stark, a brother of Charles. This was also 
bounded east by the Chester line. George Clark bought this 
land of Frederick G., and his heirs sold that part between 
Union street and the Eiver road to Hoyt & Palmer, the pres- 
ent owners, and the part east of Union street to Arah W. Pres- 
cott of Hooksett, who has built streets through to the Hook- 
sett road and laid the land out into houselots. 


To Gradus Bakeman Stark, the oldest son of John Stark,, 
2d, was given the next piece north of the land of Charles and 
Frederick G., and was the remainder of the GeneraPs home 
farm. It was forty-five rods wide and ran easterly from the 
river three hundred and fifty rods to the old Chester line. In 
the language of a deed of this land now in the possession of 
the writer the easterly bound is "a stake and stones standing 
twenty-eight feet easterly of a small brook/' The "small 
brook" referred to is Kay brook, and the "stake and stones" 
would be about where the Hooksett line extended would come. 
In 1812 Gradus Stark built his house on the east side of the 
Eiver road and very near his southern boundary, and here for 
a time the district school was kept. 

This farm afterwards passed into the hands of Matthew 
Kennedy, then a prominent citizen of the town, and was by 
him sold to Capt. John P. Powell in 1842, who occupied the 
place for the twenty-six following years. Mr. Powell sold that 
part east of Union street to John and Luther Campbell, which,, 
after passing through the hands of J. C. H. Vance, Olive M. 
Winegar, James G. Warner, George W. Whitford, and Dr. 
Clarence M. Dodge, is now the property of Halbert N. Bond. 
He also sold the north half of the farm west of the River road 
to Abel M. and Charles C. Kenniston, who built the house 
now standing thereon. The subsequent owners of the Ken- 
niston land have been Ephraim K. Powell, John P. Hanson, 


Eollin C. Dustin, Lizzie Brockway, C. H. Spollett, and George 
11. Brown, and in the order named. 

In 1868 John P. Eowell sold what remained of his farm to 
his son, Ephxaim K., who, in 1876, took down the house built 
by Gradus Stark and erected on the same site the one now 
standing, which he occupied until his death in 1896 and which 
is now owned and occupied by his son, Charles E. Howell. 

The section of this farm between Elm and Union streets 
is now owned by George H. Brown, the president of our board 
of trade, who has graded streets and laid out lots thereon, and 
named the place Pine Crest. 


To show the difference in value of this whole farm when 
General Stark took it in comparison with what it is now worth, 
the writer has conferred with assessors, real estate dealers, 
and others supposed to be good judges of the value of such 
real estate, and the consensus of opinion appears to be that it 
is now worth about three and a half million dollars. By the 
first recorded tax list of the town (1765) and after General 
Stark had come into possession of this estate, composed most- 
ly of sand banks and swamps, his tax amounted to a little less 
than six dollars. If that had been the amount of his tax bill 
in 1903 the assessors could have found less than three hun- 
dred dollars to tax him for. Did he own this property today 
he would be asked to contribute over fifty thousand dollars 
to help support our city, county, and state. Happy man! 



I come before you tonight, not because of any merit as a 
reader or speaker, but because, with you, I am interested in the 
traditional and written history of Manchester. It is but a 
short time since it, in common with the surrounding towns, 
abounded in such material, much of which, for want of care 
and interest, has been lost. Not many years ago Manchester 
was in possession of Potter's History of Manchester (unbound) 
in large numbers, there being but little demand for them at 
that time, and to make more room they were removed into a 
vault of the lobby under City Hall, where they remained until 
ruined by dampness. 

In the year 1891 Londonderry had a brick vault constructed 
in the town hall at about one thousand dollars' expense, but 
owing to improper construction records and books placed in it 
were in greater danger from dampness than from a possible 
fire. For a long time it was called the town silo. London- 
derry, like many towns, possesses valuable records which, in 
some way, should be more available to the public. What 
is true of Londonderry applies to other towns. Let the towns 
furnish copies, or the state take copies, of all such records, or at 
least a full index, and deposit them as are the colonial records 
in Concord, or some other place where they will be available to 
the public. Let New Hampshire, as one of the colonial 
states, take as much pride and care of early records and his- 
toric places as the state of Massachusetts. The original Massa- 



chusetts Bay records at the State House are a monument and 
a credit to that state, with each page hermetically sealed they 
are not only safe, but available to the public. The Manches- 
ter Historical Association has undertaken a good work, which 
will be more appreciated as time goes on. This sketch which 
I present for your consideration tonight is but a local bit of 
traditional history which I hope will be of interest to some 
of you at least. 

About four miles south of the City Hall, on the Derry road, 
there stands a large, two-story brick house, with its long string 
of horse sheds like those of a country church, its great, spread- 
ing shade trees and its duck pond, through which there ever 
runs a little brook (Giles brook) on its way from Long pond 
to unite its waters with those of the Little Cohas, or Manter 
brook at a point just west of the Stowell graveyard. The 
house with its surroundings forms a pleasing picture to the 
eye of the passing traveler, and reminds him of a country 
tavern of the stage coach days. It is now owned and occupied 
by John D. Emery. The house was erected and used as a 
tavern with accommodations for man and beast, but has never 
proved a financial success. In 1834 it was owned and occu- 
pied by Col. Josiah Stowell as a private residence. Colonel 
Stowell was a man of considerable importance. We find his 
name connected with the early history of Manchester and with 
the beginning of the Amoskeag Land & Water Power Com- 
pany. He acted as purchasing agent for them at one time. 
The name of Josiah Stowell, trader, appears many times on 
the records of Eockingham and Hillsborough counties. He 
was born in Massachusetts April 3, 1797. Early in life he 
removed with his parents, Luther and Lydia Stowell, to Wind- 
ham, Vt., into an unfinished log cabin, where he could count 
the stars at night through the roof. When about twenty years 
old, he purchased his time from his father (there being ten 
other children) and removed to Albany, N. Y. Subsequently 


lie located in Derry, N. H., where he engaged in cloth dressing 
and carding. From Derry he removed to Manchester, about 
1830. In 1842 he removed to Londonderry, Vt., where he 
erected a large hotel, store, and mill. In 1854 he removed to 
Hudson, Mich., where he died December 11, 1873, aged 
.seventy-four years. For the last ten years of his life he was 
afflicted with blindness. Colonel Stowell was a very active 
man and took great interest in the affairs of the city and state. 
He held every office in the militia from ensign to brigadier- 
general; he was a member of the governor's staff and took part 
in the reception of General LaFayette, also that of General 
Jackson, and the laying of the corner-stone at Bunker Hill. 
July 14, 1856, he was on the steamer Northern Indiana, 
when she burned on Lake Erie. He was three times married: 
First to Laura Chapine, September 8, 1817; second, to Henri- 
etta Chapine, May 28, 1828; after her death he married for 
a third wife Charlotte Barr (cousin of Ira Barr), November 20, 

April 4, 1834, this house was the scene of a remarkable out- 
break of smallpox, a disease of which we have been and are 
being semi-occasionally reminded. Smallpox at that time was 
not as well known as in these days of health boards and gov- 
ernment inspectors. It was known then, not as an aggravated 
form of the itch, but as a terrible scourge which, from time to 
time, had swept over Northern Europe and ravaged the 
islands of the sea, carrying away one half the population of 
Mexico in 1520; also raging in Iceland and Greenland in 1733. 
By some writers it is believed to have been "That mortal con- 
tagious distemper" which swept away great numbers of the 
American Indians, so that some of the American tribes were 
in a measure extinct. The Massachusetts tribes particularly 
are said to have been reduced from thirty thousand fighting 
men to three hundred, and that where now stands Plymouth, 
Mass., all the inhabitants died; that there was not a man, 


woman, or child remaining when the Pilgrims landed in 1620. 
In the words of an early historian, "Thus the Lord dealt mer- 
<i Fully with the settlers of Plymouth." 

No doubt many hair-lifting scenes were thus avoided and 
much of Miles Standislrs time saved for other purposes. On 
the date mentioned William Davis, a young man stopping with 
Colonel Stowell, after a visit to Stowell was taken sick and 
confined to his bed. He was given all possible attention by 
members of the family. Mrs. Stowell's father and mother, 
Jesse and Hannah Chapine, not knowing the nature of the 
disease, passed considerable time in the sick man's room. A 
short distance north of the Sawyer corner, in a small house, 
the site now marked by a large willow tree, lived an English- 
man, Jimmie Arwine, a man well spoken of in the community 
if he did sometimes tell the young ladies' fortunes (not mis- 
fortunes). Tradition relates that Arwine, hearing of the 
sickness at the "brick house," called and entered the young 
man's room, looking at his flushed and blotched face, ex- 
claimed to Mr. and Mrs. Chapine, then in the room, "For 
God's sake, what are you in here for? That man has the 
smallpox." The consternation caused by this announcement 
is better imagined than described. The old people, thor- 
oughly frightened, retired to their room. 

Mr. C. B. Stowell, Jr., a son of Colonel Stowell, relates that 
William Davis came to our house to visit his sister, then board- 
ing there, and said he had been in Lowell at work (a shoemaker 
by trade). He was a stranger to us all. He wanted to hire 
money of Colonel Stowell to pay for damages to a hired team. 
My father let him have the money, also a room where he could 
work at his trade to repay the loan. At the time he was 
taken sick he had been in Lowell at work about two weeks. 
On his return he had apparently a hard cold with fever. In 
a few days pustules formed which were thought to be chicken- 
pox; growing worse the question at once arose, what is it? 


The young man did not give a straight account of his time 
in Lowell. Dr. Thomas Wallace, who practiced medicine 
from 1822 to 1851, in the neighboring town of Londonderry, 
was called in. He, too, seemed in doubt of its nature. Col- 
onel Stowell instructed him to have Dr. Warren of Boston 
come up, which he did. On entering the house he said: "You 
have the smallpox in this house, I recognize the smell/' On 
viewing Davis he pronounced it an advancing case of the 
disease. All had been exposed. An old shop on the prem- 
ises was turned into a smoke house. The doctor and his team 
took their departure through clouds of burning sulphur. 

April 16, Mr. and Mrs. Chapine were stricken with the dis- 
ease, both dying April 26, within a few hours of each other. 
The community was aroused, the selectmen of Manchester, 
James McQuesten, Gilbert Greeley and Fred D. Stark, caused 
a fence to be erected near the Sawyer corner, about one-half 
mile from the house. Keepers were appointed and travel over 
the Derry road was suspended. The selectmen of London- 
derry, David Gilchrist, Eobert Boyd and my grandfather, Col. 
James Manter, caused a fence to be erected on the Derry road, 
near the junction of Manter mills road. Keepers were 
appointed and people who unfortunately dwelt within these 
limits were avoided by those living on the outside of the fence, 
as erected by the towns. A special town meeting was called 
April 28, 1834, in Manchester. It was not to see what action 
the town would take in regard to the building of the Mammoth 
road, that bone of contention for many years, but to see what 
action the town would take to stop the spread of smallpox. 
"Voted: — That the selectmen proceed to stop the spread of 
smallpox and take such measures as they may think proper." 

How far such action extended inside the fence we have 
been unable to learn. It gave people in the two towns some- 
thing new to talk about besides the Mammoth road. Colonel 
Stowell's family found themselves shut in from the world with 


their terrible visitor, dependent on themselves and the efforts 
of Dr. Wallace. It seems that Dr. Daniel Flanders, who prac- 
ticed medicine in Londonderry from 1830 to 1850, never hav- 
ing seen a case of smallpox, made a visit to the house and 
family with Dr. Wallace. Not wishing to expose himself he 
stood in the open door and looked at the patient, yet, notwith- 
standing all his precautions he found himself infected with 
the disease, and later had a run of the varioloid, previous to 
which he attended a woman in confinement living in London- 
derry, I think by the name of Smith. This house was like- 
wise quarantined and road closed. The child died. This is 
believed to have been the only case outside the "Brick house," 
where it originated. 

The late Warren Corning, then a boy at work for Colonel 
Stowell, remained with the family. He, too, fell a victim to 
the disease. Though his life was despaired of he recovered, 
but carried deep marks of its ravages to his death in 1884. 
His father, Capt. Benjamin Corning, each morning when the 
wind was right, would repair to the hilltop near the house of 
Thomas Chase, now occupied by Frank Emery, to learn the 
condition of his boy and the stricken family, fearing each time 
what it might be. When at last he was carried out east of the 
house where his father could see him Mr. Corning could not 
recognize his boy, so great had been the change. Two Irish 
women were at last secured, immunes from the disease, who 
turned the little brook into a laundry, standing each day in 
its waters washing out the clothes. (You see there was no 
health board, fish warden, or government expert to object.) 
Many times we wonder how people of that and even of a later 
period lived well up to the century mark when they were so 
lamentably ignorant of the laws of health and the giddy way 
of the festive microbe. Today we see no mounds like those 
along the Weare branch, surmounted with empty lime casks, 
that date back manv years. These mounds are monuments to 


modern science and the zeal of government inspectors; like 
the kings of England they can do no wrong. 

Otherwise than as stated Colonel Stowell and his family 
tended their living, and buried their dead in a little plot of 
ground northeast of the house. Later the spot selected and 
set apart as a place of burial was substantially walled and mon- 
uments erected to the memory of the departed. But a subse- 
quent owner overthrew walls and removed the monuments, 
and it is said used them for a time for door stones; but they 
were removed by Colonel Stowell' s orders to the family lot in 
the Stowell yard, where they stand today in memory of those 
whose remains are in unmarked graves on the hillside, undis- 
turbed by the plow, or step of the passing traveler. 

Like all contagious diseases, smallpox suddenly appeared 
and as suddenly disappeared. Dr. C. 0. Smith, superintendent 
of local health and of Quentin's Hospital at Bainsford's island, 
near Boston, was summoned and under his direction the prem- 
ises were thoroughly fumigated with burning sulphur. Large 
quantities of beds, bedding and furniture were burned, buried, 
or destroyed. It is said onions were placed in the rooms, 
under the doctor's instructions, and so long as contagion re- 
mained, pustules would form on the inner covering. The 
doctor being a well-known expert from Boston, was paid fifty 
dollars for his knowledge and service in the case. I have yet 
to learn that Manchester paid any part of the expense incurred. 

I am indebted to Mr. C. B. Stowell of Hudson, Mich., for a 
copy of the record in the family Bible and other information 
from my father's, C. B. Stowell, family Bible. 

Manchester, April 4th, 1834, William Davis taken sick with 
smallpox at my house — got well. 

April 16, 1834, Jesse and Hannah Chapine (Father and 
mother-in-law) taken sick with small pox and both died on 
the 26th of April, Jesse Chapine J before 9 o'clock p. m., and 
Hannah Chapine % before 11 o'clock p. m., M 72. She, 68 


April 20th, Mary Brown, hired girl living in my family 4 
years, taken sick with same disease, died May 2d, JE 34 years. 

April 24, James Henry Stowell (son), same disease and on 
the 24th had a severe fit — supposed to he dead. Got well — 
died in N. V. City, June 12, 1895. 

April 26th, Warren Corning (hired boy) attacked by same 
disease — life expected to cease for 8 days, but survived. He 
died in Manchester. 

April 29, Moses Griffin (hired man — negro), same disease. 
Was very sick — got well. 

Jesse and Hannah Chapine, Mary Brown, Warren Corning 
and Moses Griffin had severe cases of smallpox. 

Dr. Thomas Wallace attended through sickness. 

Dr. Jerome 0. C. Smith of Boston attended 1^ days and 

Dr. Wallace gave closest attention and did well. 


Mrs. Chase, a sister of C. B. Stowell and a daughter of 
Colonel Stowell, is now living in Chicago at an advanced age, 
and is the only surviving member of the family. She lived 
in Manchester, N. H., in 1834, and although but a small girl 
at that time acted as nurse to the victims. 

William Davis, w T ho imported the smallpox, died in London- 
derry, Vt., in April, 1854. 

District No. 9, Londonderry, N. H., was visited by small- 
pox in the sixties. The family of Edward Clark was afflicted. 
The road was fenced and guarded. No fatalities resulted. 

We have tried to present you what we have been able to 
gather from record and tradition. We believe you will find 
it substantially correct. 



Those very aged residents present who are old enough to 
have been alive in 1846, or earlier, will bear witness that the 
memory of the scenes and events of their childhood and early 
youth is often more vivid than the recollection of those more 
recent. It is possible that persons, and especially places, re- 
called from a distant and rapidly fading past may be colored 
with a sort of childish exaggeration, but I indulge the hope 
that nothing is unimportant which relates to early Manchester. 

I came from Cambridge, Mass., late in November, 1841, by 
rail to Nashua, then the terminus, and thence in a sleigh-stage 
to Manchester, driving directly to the "Old Ark/' on Amherst 
street. In the L extension lived Walter French, Dr. Thomas 
Brown, and others. Mr. French then kept a periodical store 
in the basement, afterwards carried on for many years by E, K. 

Dr. Tom Brown was my uncle, and many will well remem- 
ber him and his children, Moses, Jacob, Thomas, Lucretia and 
Mary. The doctor died in 1848 of Asiatic cholera, and the 
others now are all dead except Moses. The doctor was a 
noted temperance reformer in his day, and was very widely 
and unfavorably known by most of the liquor dealers. 

Roughly speaking, the settled limits of the town, on the 
town side, then extended from Merrimack to Bridge street, 
north and south, and from Elm to Pine street on the east, 
with here and there many vacant lots, and on the corporation 
side from Central to Spring street, quite a space between being 
also vacant. 



I well remember the old town house, and the incident of a 
big dog belonging to Cheney's Express Company crawling 
from the belfry to the steep roof and being killed by sliding to 
the sidewalk. I saw in the corner window a wildcat killed on 
the road to GofiVs Falls. The city was surrounded by woods, 
north, east and south, mostly hard pine, with large, open and 
unfenced clearings towards Hallsville, Towlesvillc and Janes- 
ville. The old "rye-field," commonly the circus ground, and 
the pine plain northeast, where Emerson displayed firew r orks 
for several years, will be recalled. 

Doubtless many remember the old sand lots, above Bridge 
street, afterwards known as "Pigville." From here to the falls 
were not more than two or three dwellings, one occupied by 
Mr. Webber. The small wooden schoolhouse was then stand- 
ing on the old Falls road. The original McGregor bridge then 
spanned the river, but was impassible for teams and unsafe for 
foot travel, but I crossed it more than once when a boy. 

Union building had an early and changeful occupancy. 
Here was the old Athenaeum, David Hill, librarian ; a debating 
room where old John Houston, the blacksmith, held his 
ground against all comers. In disposing of the problem of 
life he said, "I am, therefore I exist; I exist, therefore I have 
the right to be." Here also was the office of the Manchester 
Messenger, and in another room John H. Goodale's Democrat, 
while in the attic Otis Eastman and a company of stage-struck 
juveniles rehearsed terrible tragedy. The Jackson Brothers 
then sold dry goods in the room now occupied by the Manches- 
ter bank. 

The Methodist church was entered from "cat alley" by a 
broad Might of stairs, several stores taking up the Elm-street 
front. Here Simpson & Sargent sold dry goods. Mr. Simpson 
had an old bachelor brother and a sister on Hanover street, 
between Chestnut and Pine, as good as they were eccentric, 
and with this worthy couple I was put out to live for a time. 


The Museum, at the corner of Pleasant street, was a large, 
three-story block. Tewksbury's bookstore held a part of the 
street front, and up one flight was the museum itself. I re- 
member the high glass cases, in which were a few mounted 
birds and stuffed animals, and around the room was an assort- 
ment of curiosities. The whole collection was meagre, but it 
never was increased and finally disappeared, I never knew 
when or where. On the upper floor was the theatre. The 
seats were raised, there was a good stage, a fine drop curtain 
of green broadcloth, and a considerable outfit of scenery. 
Here tragedy, comedy, farce and melodrama by turns held the 
boards. Here Joe Walker, an elocutionary graduate of Eod- 
ney Kendall, made his debut as Cassio, and here John N". Bruce 
played Eoderigo and various other light comedy characters, 
being particularly effective as Natz Tiek, in the Swiss Cottage. 
Walter Dignam was first violin and leader of the orchestra. 

After the Museum theatre was permanently closed, perform- 
ances were given for a time in the old Baptist church, which 
had been metamorphosed into a theatre, the old pews, cushions 
and all, being thus profanely diverted from their original 

On the east side of Elm street there was a row of cheap 
wooden buildings, usually a story and a half high, but no two 
alike, with gable ends to the street. Aside from Shepherd's 
tavern, Kidder & Dunklee's store, and the City hotel, I re- 
member no brick buildings; on Merrimack street none, on 
Manchester street one besides the Baptist church and on Han- 
over street none except Kiddie's building. On Amherst and 
around Concord square, including Vine street, were, so to 
speak, the houses of the nobility and gentry — all American 
families, and among them many of the most prominent citi- 
zens of the town. Concord square was then cultivated by the 
abuttors, each having a little plot in which were planted beet, 
parsnip, carrot, cabbage and onion seeds — never anything 


else — and I have an impressioD that any one surreptitiously 
putting: in a squash seed would have been mobbed. 

I well remember seeing the great comet of 1843 from the 
steps of Dr. Wallace's church, as it nightly shook its horrid 
hair to the south of the meridian. Hard by this church was, 
time out of mind, a livery and boarding stable, then kept by 
Colonel Chase. He had a son John, and two daughters, one 
a blonde and the other a brunette. I find I have covered but 
a small fraction of the ground as indicated by my notes, but 
before closing let us take a stroll up Elm street, and salute a 
few of our old acquaintances. 

The street is unpaved, but the sand is moistened in 
spots by the one watering cart then in commission, operated 
by Micajah Ingham. On either hand are groups of loungers 
who hear the clangor of a bell, followed by the lusty tones of 
Old Adams, the town crier. A larger crowd opposite Bill 
Putney's "Eagle" are watching a fight between two bulldogs, 
the property of the town's butchers, Eobinson and Hobbs. 
The fight goes on for two hours or more, the owners looking 
on with the rest and no one interfering. As one dog grew 
tired he would lie still and let the other chew him till he got 
rested. Then the other dog would be chewed. The fights 
were frequent, usually ending in a draw, and to this day it has 
never been decided which was the better dog. A straggling 
file of men wiggled out of Riddle's building, where the police 
court had been held by Judge Potter, and among them is old 
Riddle himself, with his tall silk hat, which he continued to 
wear until after the close of the Civil war. Finally we halt in 
front of the Old Ark, the point from which we started. Here 
we have a chat with Fred Smyth, just then a clerk in a grocery 
store at a salary of a dollar a week. He is much interested in 
mesmerism, and will probably ask you to step into the back 
room and let him put you to sleep. I assume that you have 
entered and are for the time unconscious, but before you come 
out of your trance, Time's drop curtain falls. 


Societies are multiplying in the older East, says Charles M. 
Skinner in Saturday Evening Post, that have in view the pres- 
ervation of places of historic interest. For the hand of the 
spoiler is on the land, and one hears with grief of the destruc- 
tion of famous old houses where the value of the real estate 
thus cleared barely pays the contractor for carting off the 
bricks. If a building becomes so old as to be dangerous, senti- 
ment will not and should not stand in the way of its removal, 
but in many instances the houses and churches were put up 
in the good old days when the jerry builder had no standing, 
and when homes were not for their makers alone, but their 
children and the children of their children. In all such in- 
stances a little money for repair would probably put the place 
into something very near its original soundness and attrac- 

We should be able to read history more clearly if we kept about 
us more of the actualities that have had to do with history. 
An old house tells more to us, in a glance, of the state of the 
arts and industries of the time it marks, of the social condition 
of the people who made it, of their relations to the soil, than 
we could gain in some kinds of reading. Nor has our archi- 
tecture so determined itself that the study of these old houses 
has ceased to be a gain to us. Indeed, the Colonial renais- 
sance, which is especially fitting to an American environment, 
and which contributes plentifully to the charm of many of 
our towns, would have been deferred indefinitely, and would, 
indeed, have been impossible, had it not been for opportuni- 



ties for the study of dignified forms of construction offered by 
halls and residences in parts of New England and the Middle 

Apart from these more scholastic or material advantages, 
there is reason enough for preserving the old buildings that 
have historic interest, and for keeping the squatter out of our 
famous battlefields. For they appeal to patriotism, and they 
have a part in maintaining the traditions which encourage the 
best tendencies of the people. Who does not realize the per- 
sonality of George Washington more keenly after he has wan- 
dered through the quaint rooms of Mount Vernon, and 
roamed about its perfumed gardens? And who, thus realiz- 
ing, does not feel a new admiration for the founder of the 
nation? Who but a clod is not thrilled on his first visit to 
that room in Philadelphia, so big with meaning for the future 
of the country and the world, or to the white hall of Faneuil, or 
to the taverns and monuments lining that road to Concord 
which was dim with the dust of trampling thousands one 
April morning, and wet with patriot blood? 

National feeling always rises to emergencies in our country, 
yet the presence of our monuments tends to keep it alive 
through periods of peace, and the memorials of men who 
were strong and resolute in courage and virtue, who sacrificed 
self on the altar of a common good, who held their country 
highest in their love, are reminders that there is always place 
lor their successors, not alone in the nation's councils but in 
the hearts of its people. The vandal who destroys that which 
is held sacred destroys more than material forms. We need 
every reminder, not alone for our own contemplation, but for 
that of our descendants and that of the millions who are cross- 
ing the seas to find homes among us, that in this land one 
may be not merely free but noble, and that the reward of a 
people is his who shall be worthy of its love. 



Vol. III. January-March, 1902. No. 1 

An Illustrated Magazine, published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, containing the papers read at the meetings, 
with the proceedings of the Association, and miscellaneous arti- 
cle and items of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, $1.00. Single copy, 25 cents. 


G. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Manchester, N. H, 


A preliminary meeting, called for the purpose of forming a 
historical society devoted to collecting, preserving and publish- 
ing whatever matter relating to the early and later history of 
this vicinity that might be obtained, was held at the Board of 
Trade Rooms, Kennard Building, on the evening of December 
4, 1895. There were present at this meeting, John C. French, 
Josiah Carpenter, John Dowst, John G. Crawford, Edgar J. 
Knowlton, George C. Gilmore, Edwin P. Richardson, George 
W. Browne, Sylvester C. Gould, Edward J. Burnham, Henry W. 
Herrick, Herbert W. Eastman, David L. Perkins, Joseph Kid 
der, George F. Willey, and John G. Hutchinson. 

Meeting was opened with remarks by Mr. Willey, followed 
by all present, who unanimously declared that they were in 
favor of such an organization. Mr. French was chosen chair- 
man, and Mr. Dowst secretary. Upon motion it was voted that a 
committee of five be appointed by the chairman to draft a con- 
stitucion and report at a subsequent meeting. This commit- 


tee consisted of Messrs. Browne, Gilmore, Gould, Crawford, 
and Dowst. 

At an adjourned meeting, held December 18, 1895, chairman 
French presiding. Articles of Association, and a Constitution 
were submitted by the committee, and accepted. A committee 
consisting of Dowst Crawford, Browne, Gould, and Gilmore, 
appointed by chairman French to nominate a board of officers 
for the ensuing year, retired to the committee room, and sub- 
sequently returned and reported the names of the board, and 
the same were unanimously elected as follows : 

President, John C. French ; Vice-Pres. Henry W. Herrick 
and Joseph Kidder ; Treasurer, John Dowst ; Recording Sec- 
retary, Herbert W. Eastman ; Corresponding Secretary, George 
W. Browne • Librarian, Sam C. Kennard ; Historiographer, 
George C. Gilmore ; Executive Committee, John C. French (ex- 
officio), Herbert W. Eastman (ex officio), John G. Crawford, 
Edwin P. Richardson, Josiah Carpenter, David L. Perkins, and 
David Cross ; Publication Committee, George F. Willey, Edgar 
J. Knowlton, Sylvester C. Gould, William H. Morrison, and 
Francis B. Eaton. As the first-named of publication committee 
did not become a member of the association, George W. Browne 
at a subsequent meeting was elected to that place. 

The Constitution provided that the name of the organization 
should be The Manchester Historic Association, and that 
quarterly meetings should be held through the year on the 
third Wednesdays of March, June, September and December, 
the last constituting the annual meeting, at which time a board 
of officers should be elected for the ensuing year. The place 
of holding the meeting was left to the choice of the President. 

An adjourned meeting was held on January 1, 1896, to re- 
ceive the Articles of Association, with such signatures as may 
have been secured during the interval. At this meeting it was 
voted to date the organization of the association from this day. 
The following persons signed the Articles of Incorporation and 
thus became the incorporators of the association : 



Moody Currier, David L. Perkins, 

George C. Gilmore, George W. Browne, 

Joseph Kidder, Charles B. Sturtevant, 

John C. French, Herbert W. Eastman, 

David Cross, Edgar J. Knowlton, 

Josiah Carpenter, William E. Moore, 

Henry W. Herrick. Sam C. Kennard, 

John Dowst, Francis B. Eaton, 

Edwin P. Richardson, William H. Morrison, 

Sylvester C. Gould, David Perkins. 

John G. Crawfofd, 
The first quarterly meeting according to the provision of the 
constitution, was held on the evening of March 19, 1896, in the 
Board of Trade Rooms, at which time David L. Perkins read 
the first paper before the Historic Association, which was entitled 
" Reminiscences of Manchester, 1841-1896." 

From March 19, 1896, to the annual meeting, held December 
18, 1901, all the meetings were held in the Board of Trade 
Rooms through the courtesy of that organization, and at nearly 
every meeting a paper was read or an address given. The 
elections of officers have always been harmonious, and credit 
is due tothem for the great interest they have always taken 
in the association. 

On January 10, 1898, the association met the great loss by 
death of its Recording Secretary, Herbert W. Eastman, who had 
ever been a willing and faithful officer and worker. 

On January 8, 1900, almost two years later, the death of the 
President, John C. French occurred, which removed one of the 
originators and most active promoters of the association. 

The other members, who have been removed by death, and 
nearly of whom have been earnest workers, were as follows : 
Andrew Bunton, June 18, 1897 > David L. Perkins, March 2 
1898 ; Moody Currier, August 23, 1898; Charles H. Bartlett, 
January 25, 1900; William E. Moore, October 22, 1900; Fred 
G. Hartshorn, February 26, 1901 ; Allen N. Clapp, May 18, 
1 Three others signed the articles but never became members. 


1901 ; John M. Chandler, December 5, 1901 ; William E. 
Truesdale, January 8, 1902 ; Luther S. Proctor, March 1, 1902 ; 
William P. Merrill, March 5, 1902 ; Joseph R. Weston, March 
28, 1902. 

On March 16, 1902, Bayard C. Ryder was elected to the office of 
recording secretary to fill the vacancy caused by the decease of 
Herbert W. Eastman, which position he held until March 19, 
1902, when his resignation was tendered and accepted, he hav- 
ing accepted a clerkship in Washington, D. C. Henry W. Her- 
rick, first vice president, served as president the remainder of 
the official year made vacant by the decease of John C. French, 
and on December 19, 1900, was elected president, and is now 
serving his second year in that office. On December 19, 1900, 
Joseph Kidder was elected first vice-president and Joseph W. Fel- 
lows second vice-president. George W. Browne was elected 
at the annual meeting in 1896 to the first place on the publica- 
tion committee and has held that position to the present time. 
Fred W. Lamb was elected to the office of librarian at the an- 
nual meeting December 15, 1897, and still holds that position. 
The other changes have been slight, and if, at times, the work 
has progressed slowly, it has nevertheless shown a creditable 
result in the holding of interesting meetings, and the publica- 
tion of Volumes I and IT, " Manchester Historic Collections/' 
of over 300 pages each, and Vol. Ill commencing with this 
number, these volumes being issued in regular quarterly parts, 
which contain the papers read before the association, other 
historical contributions, with the proceedings of the meetings 
appended with suplementary miscellany. 

During the year 1901 the association received an inestimable 
benefit from the personal efforts of Captain David Perkins, who 
solicited and secured nearly 275 new members, thus making 
the present membership 325. With this great gain in its patron- 
age, influence, and available funds from dues, the association 
gives much promise of increased usefulness. 

At the burning of the Kennard Building on the night of Jan- 
uary 14, 1902, the association met with its first great loss, being 


all of its papers, books, pamphlets, collections, and records, ex- 
cept a few volumes which were at the home of George W. 
Browne, and a few old deeds and papers at the home of the 
librarian Fred W. Lamb. Fortunately the Publication Com- 
mittee had its office in Mr. S. C. Gould's office, and nearly all 
of the numbers of Vol. II of the published " Collections," in- 
cluding the late William E. Moore's " Contribution to the His- 
tory of Old Derryfield," were thus saved. Fifty full sets of Vol. I 
of the " Collections," stored in the Kennard Building, were 
burned besides nearly 50 copies each of Parts 2 and 3 of Vol. I. 
One hundred full sets in parts of Vol. I were sent to the bind- 
ery a few days before the fire and thus fortunately were saved. 

Already many of the sets of publications published by other 
societies have generously been furnished to this association, 
and the librarian feels hopeful that there will soon be restored 
in a large measure the loss to the library resulting from the fire. 

In 1898 the Association published the Frst Part of Vol. I, a 
pamphlet of over one hundred pages, which was later followed by 
two more parts ; then the three parts were gathered constituting 
Volume I. Following this a quarterly publication has been 
issued containing the papers and contributions, and this quar- 
terly for 1901, including the William E. Moore papers already 
mentioned, completed Volume II, so with the current year the 
publication enters on its third volume with an edition of one 
thousand copies. 

The following is the list of papers read before the association 
since its organization. January r, 1896 : 

Mar. 19, 1896. Reminiscences of Manchester, 1841-1896, 

By David L. Perkins. 
June 17, 1896, Captain John Moore's Company at Bunker Hill, 

George C. Gilmore. 
June 17, 1896. New Hampshire Men at Louisburg and Bun- 
ker Hill, William H. Morrison. 
Sept. 16, 1896. Boating on the Merrimack, George W.Browne. 
Dec. 23, 1896 Fort William and Mary, John G. Crawford. 
Dec. 23, 1896. Derryfield Social Library, William H. Huse. 



Contributions to the History of Old Derryfleld, 

William E. Moore. 
The Manter Mills, William H. Huse. 

Etymology Indian Language, New Hampshire. 

John G. Crawford. 
Hon. Samuel Blodget, George W. Browne. 

Proclamation Money, John G. Crawford. 

Home Life of Major-General John Stark, 

Henry W. Herrick. 

Proprietors' Records of Tyng Township, with 

Editorial Notes, George W. Browne. 

Joseph Henry Stickney, Henry W. Herrick. 

Address on New Hampshire History, 

Albert S. Bachellor. 
Old Hand-Tub Days in Manchester, 

Fred W. Lamb. 
Colonel John Goffe, Gordon Woodbury. 

Early Settlement at Kelley's Falls, 

William E. Moore. 
Manchester Fire Department (Second Paper). 

Fred W. Lamb. 
The Indians of the Merrimack Valley. 

Erastus P. Jewell. 
General James Wilson, James F. Briggs. 

Early Recollections of Manchester, 

Joseph Kidder. 

Dec. 18, 1901. The Old Bridge-Street Pound, Orrin H. Leavitt. 

All the above papers have been printed, excepting the addresses 

of Messrs. Jewell and Bachellor, which have not been procured. 

In addition to this list of papers the following contributions 

have been also printed : 

Vol. I. Old Derryfleld and Young Manchester, 

By David L. Perkins. 
" " Grace Fletcher, John C. French. 

" " New Hampshire Branch Society of Cincinnati, 

John C. French. 
" " Stark's First Fight with the British, Fred W. Lamb. 

Mar. 17, 


Mar. 17, 


Mar. 17, 


June 16, 


June 16, 


Sept. 15, 

i89 7 . 

Sept. i Sl 

, 1897. 

June 22, 


June 22, 


Sept. 21, 


Mar. 15, 


Sept. 20, 


Sept. 20, 


June 20, 


Oct. 3, 


Oct. 16, 



" " Anecdotes of General and Molly Stark, Fred W. Lamb. 

" " Bibliography of John Stark, Sylvester C. Gould. 

Vol. I. Election Sermons in New Hampshire, S. C. Gould. 

" " Author of •' The Sweet By and By," S. C. Gould. 

,, .. „ . , ,, , 4 (Herbert W.Eastman, 

Semi-centennial,Manchester, -J Fred w LamD . 

" " Sketches of Deceased Members, Francis B Eaton. 

Vol. II. Contributions to the History of Old Derryfield, 

William E. Moore. 

" " Hon. Allen Newcomb Clapp, Henry W. Herrick. 

" " Fred G. Hartshorn, George W. Browne. 

" " Miscellaneous Notes and Items, 
Vol. III. A Sketch of Dunbarton, N. H., Miss Ella Mills. 

" " Cholera in Manchester, 1849-1854, George C. Gilmore # 

At the present time about thirty papers are being prepared 
for the meetings of the associations and for publication, many 
of them being of interest and importance in connection with 
the early and contemporary history of Manchester and sur- 
rounding towns. 



President Henry W. Herrick presiding, the meeting was 
called to order in the Odd-Fellows Banquet Hall at eight o'clock 
p. m. In the absence of the Recording Secretary Fred W. 
Lamb was chosen pro tern. 

George W. Browne in behalf of Mr. Lamb presented the 
association with a scrap-book containing the records of previ- 
ous meetings as they had been reported in the daily press from 
time to time, and suggested that through the efforts of a com- 
mittee the records might be made complete and verified so 
as to be accepted by the association at some future meeting as 
the official records. The gift of Mr. Lamb was accepted, and 
a vote of thanks was passed for the same. A committee of 
three was then authorized to be appointed by the President, 
and the following were selected for the purpose and to report at 


the second quarterly meeting in June : George W. Browne, 
Fred W. Lamb, and George C. Gilmore. 

Reuben L. Reed, of South Acton, Mass., was present and 
then addressed the association in an interesting speech of 
thirty minutes describing a gavel he had been instrumental in 
making of historic woods, and which, with a block and box in 
which to keep it, he presented to the association. A book des- 
scribing the woods also accompanied the gavel. The response 
was made by George C. Gilmore, and the gift was unanimously 
accepted. A committee consisting of President Herrick, Sec- 
retary Lamb, and Cor. Secretary Browne was chosen to prepare 
resolutions of thanks to be presented at the next meeting. 

The names of 25 applicants for membership, secured mainly 
by Captain David Perkins, were then read and unanimously 
elected to membership. 

The report of the librarian showed that the recent loss of the 
library in the Kennard Building fire was being rapidly replaced 
with generous donations from societies and individuals. 

The report of the publication committee showed that fifty 
sets of Vol. I of the Historic collections had been lost by the 
Kennard fire, as also about fifty numbers of Parts 2 and 3. 
None of the Moore Contributions were lost, and only twelve 
copies of No. 1, Vol. II of The Historic Quarterly. The 
report was accepted. 

A vote of thank was extended to Mrs. William E. Moore for 
further donations of copies of the " Contributions to the His- 
tory of Old Derryfield," and some manuscript papers of the late 
Mr. Moore. 

Reuben L. Reed was elected an honorary member of the 
association, and Vols. I and II of the Collections were voted to 
him by the association. 

A paper left by the late William E. Moore on " Manchester 
Fifty Years Ago," was read by Orrin H. Leavitt. Also a paper 
written by G. Waldo Browne upon " Derryfield in the Revolu- 
tion," was read by the author. 

Meeting then adjourned. 



Vol. III. April-June, 1902. No. 2. 

An Illustrated Magazine, published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, containing the papers read at the meetings, 
with the proceedings of the Association, and miscellaneous arti- 
cle and items of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, $1,00. Single copy, 25 cents. 


G. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Manchester, N. H. 



President Herrick called meeting to order at 8 o'clock P. M. 
in Masonic Banquet Hall, Pembroke Block, about fifteen mem- 
bers and visitors being present. 

In the absence of ihe secretary George C. Gilmore was 
chosen secretary pro tern. Reading of the records of the last 
Quarterly meeting omitted by vote. 

Frank W. Sargeant was elected permanent Recording Secre- 
tary to fill the unexpired term, and Mr. Sargeant assumed the 
duties of his office at once. 

Geo. Waldo Browne, in behalf of the committee, submitted 
the following resolutions upon the gift of the gavel to the Asso- 
ciation by Reuben L. Reed. Esq., and his associates : 


Manchester, N. H., March 28, 1902. 

At the regular Quarterly meeting of the Manchester His- 
toric Association held March 19, 1902, upon motion of Col. 
George C. Gilmore, it was unanimously voted that a committee 
of three, consisting of the officers of the Association, should 
be chosen to submit at the next meeting resolutions of thanks 
for the beautiful gift of a gavel and block made of over 
sixty varieties of historic woods, and presented by Mr. Reuben 
L. Reed and others. This committee accordingly submit the 


Whereas The Manchester Historic Association, appreci- 
ating the fitness and the value attached to the gavel and block 
made of historic woods and so generously bestowed upon the 
association, and realizing the time, research and expense of 
procuring the respective parts composing this unique instru- 
ment, be it 

Resolved, That the Manchester Historic Association 
extend its thanks to the donors, Mr. Reuben L. Reed and the 
several individuals and societies who have lent him their assist- 
ance, and furthermore, be it 

Resolved, That the Association will ever hold in grateful 
remembrance the courtesy and fraternal good will of the action. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be made a part of our 
records, and that a copy be sent to the donors through their 

Sincerely and fraternally submitted, 

Henry W. Herrick, President, 
Frank W. Sargeant, Rec. Secretary, 
George W. Browne, Cor. Secretary, 

Committee on Resolutions. 
Mr. Reuben L. Reed, South Acton, Mass. 


The Publication Committee reported progress in the matter 
of publications, and was given authority to secure and publish 
the series of articles written by the late John C. French upon 
the McClary family. 

The following persons were elected to active membership in 
the association : Roswell H. Hassam, Noyes B Cummings, 
Daniel H. Dickey, Frank L Way, Mrs. Annie M. French, all 
of this city, and Selwyn B. Kidder of Chicago. 

Notice was given to change the constitution so that the regu- 
lar Quarterly meetings shall be held on the first Wednesday of 
January, April, July, and October of each year, action to be 
taken on this matter at the next Quarterly meeting in September. 

Announcement was made by the President of valuable dona 
tions to the library, including among others many valuable 
papers and books belonging to the library of the late Hon. 
Jacob F. James. 

At the close of the business session John Foster, Esq., read 
an exceedingly interesting and valuable paper entitled " The 
Story of a Private Soldier in the Revolution, Moses Fellows, 
of Salisbury, N. H." Mr. Foster received the closest attention 
of his listeners throughout his address, and was given a unani 
mous vote of thanks at its close. The paper will be published 
in the Collections of the Association shortly. 

G. Waldo Browne followed Mr. Foster with an address upon 
"Captain John Lovewell and the * Snow-Shoe Men ' of Old 

The meeting adjourned after a short discussion upon the 
advisability of securing permanent headquarters for the society. 



Vol. III. July-September, 19.02. No. 3 

An Illustrated Magazine, published by the Manchester His- 
toric Association, containing; the papers read at the meetings, 
with the proceedings of the Association, and miscellaneous arti- 
cles and items of general interest. 

Terms, in advance, $1.00. Single copy, 25 cents. 


G-. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Manchester, N. H. 


The regular Quarterly meeting was held at Walker's Hall. 
The meeting was called to order by the president, but as there 
were not enough members present to constitute a quorum, it 
was voted to adjourn to Sept. 24, to meet at the same place. 


President Herrick presiding, seven members being present, 
the reading of the minutes of preceding meetings was omitted 
by vote. 

Resignation of Fred W. Lamb, librarian, was read and ac- 
cepted, and in recognition of the valuable services he had done 
for the association, he was accorded a unanimous vote of thanks. 


The following names, secured by Captain Perkins, were then 
read and the persons unanimously voted members of the asso- 
ciation : Herbert M. Moody, Fred H. Bates. 

G. W. Browne reported that suitable rooms could be secured 
in the new Kennard, and the committee chosen to secure quar- 
ters were requested to investigate and report at the next meet- 

Adjourned to meet October 8, at rooms of the Second Na- 
tional Bank. 

Frank W. Sargeant, Rec. Sec. 


At the adjourned meeting of the Association held at rooms of 
the Second National Bank the following members were present: 
Messrs. Herrick, Fellows, Carpenter, Eaton, Hadley, Gould, 
Burnham, Challis, Clapp, and Browne. 

In the absence of the recording secretary, G. Waldo Browne 
was elected secretary pro tern, and received the oath of office 
from J. W. Fellows, J. P. Reading of records of last meeting 

Voted upon motion of Mr. Fellows that election of librarian 
to fill vacancy be laid upon the table until the annual meeting. 

Upon presentation of name by President Herrick, Mrs. Olive 
Rand Clarke was elected to active membership in the Associa- 

G. W. Browne offering requests for withdrawal upon the parts 
of the respective members, it was voted that their requests be 
granted: Rev. William H. Morrison, Brockton, Mass ; Rev. 
Samuel Rose, Merrimack, N. H. ; Mr. Walter S. Noyes, Little- 
ton, and Mr. Henry N. Hurd, Manchester. 

Upon motion it was voted that bill of incidental expenses in- 
curred by G. W. Browne as chairman of Publication Committee, 
be paid by the Treasurer. Amount of bill, $22.22. 


Voted that committee on permanent quarters be authorized to 
secure rooms in the Kennard or elsewhere, as they thought best. 

The amendment to the Constitution then taken from the table 
it was unanimously voted that the same be accepted, so that the 
time of holding the annual meeting shall be on the first Wednes- 
day in January of each year, and that the Quarterly meetings 
be held on the first Wednesdays of April, July and October. 
Accordingly the next Annual meeting will be held on Wednes- 
day, Jan. 7, 1903. 

Upon motion of Mr. Browne, Messrs. William H, Morrison 
and Walter S. Noyes were elected honorary members. 

Following remarks by Messrs Fellows, Herrick, Clapp, Eaton 
and others relative to articles in preparation for future publica- 
tion, the meeting adjourned without date. 

G. Waldo Browne, Rec. Sec. Pro Tern. 


(book review.) 

The Romance of Old New England Roofthees, by Mary C. Craw- 
ford ; L. C. Page & Co., Pubs., Boston, 12mo., 390pp., 30 illustrations, 
$1 25. For sale by W. P. Goodman, of this city. 

The above title sets forth succinctly a work that must appeal 
strongly to our readers. In well chosen language the author 
narrates some of the most interesting incidents, as well as giving 
particular descriptions, clinging about the old rooftrees she has 
selected, giving enough of the romantic to impress the quaint 
homesteads and the lives of their occupants very vividly upon 
the mind. There were twenty four subjects chosen, selected so 
as to cover New England. Among those most likely to interest 
our readers we notice the Governor Wentworth House at Ports, 
mouth, N. H. ; Red Horse Tavern, Sudbury, Mass. ; Pepperell 
House, Kittery, Me.; Williams House, Deerfield, Mass, and of 
more especial interest to readers of the Quarterly, the Stark 


Homestead, Dumbarton. A fine halftone of the old mansion 
accompanies the article. In fact, the thirty-odd pictures of the 
subjects treated greatly enhance ihe value as well as the beauty 
of the book. The following extracts from the description of the 
Stark place afford an apt specimen of the happy style of the 
work : 

Molly Stark's Gentleman-Son. 

Of the quaint ancestral homes still standing in the old Granite 
State, none is more picturesque or more interesting from the 
historical view point than the Stark house in the little town of 
Dunbarton, a place about five miles' drive out from Concord, 
over one of those charming country roads, which properly make 
New Hampshire the summer and autumn Mecca of those who have 
been ''long in populous city pent." Rather oddly, this house 
has, for all its great wealth of historical interest, been little 
known to the general public. The Starks are a conservative, as 
well as an old family, and they have never seen fit to make of 
their home a public show-house. Yet those who are privileged 
to visit Dunbarton and its chief boast, this famous house, al" 
ways remember the experience as a particularly interesting one. 
Seldom, indeed, can one find in these da>s a house like this, 
which, for more than one hundred years, has been occupied by 
the family for whom it was built, and through all the changes and 
chances of temporal affairs has preserved the characteristics of 
revolutionary times. 

This imposing old mansion was built by Caleb, the son of 
Gen. John Stark. 

Caleb Stark was a very. remarkable man. Born at Dunbar- 
ton, December 3, 1759, he was present while only a lad at the 
battle of Bunker Hill, standing side by side with some of the 
veteran rangers of the French war, near the rail fence, which 
extended from the redoubt to the beach of the Mystic River. 
In order to be at this scene of conflict, the boy had left home 
secretly some days before, mounted on his own horse, and armed 
only with a musket. After a long, hard journey he managed to 


reach the Royall house in Medford, which was his father's head- 
quarters at the time, the very night before the great battle. And 
the general, though annoyed at his son's manner. of coming, 
recognized that the lad had done only what a Stark must do at 
such a time, and permitted him to take part in the next day's 

After that, there followed for Caleb a time of great social 
opportunity, which transformed the clever, but unpolished New 
Hampshire boy into as fine a young gentleman as was to be 
found in the whole country. The Royall house, it will be re- 
membered, was presided over in the troublous war times by the 
beautiful ladies of the family, than whom no more cultured and 
distinguished women were anywhere to be met. And these, 
though Tory to the backbone, were disposed to be very kind and 
gracious to the brave boy whom the accident of war had made 
their guest. 

So it came about that even before he reached manhood's estate 
Caleb Stark had acquired the grace and polish of Europe. Nor 
was the lad merely a carpet knight. So abiy did he serve his 
father that he was made the elder soldier's a'd-de-camp, when 
the father was made a brigadier-general, and by the time the 
war closed, was himself Major Stark, though scarcely twenty- 
four years old. 

Soon after peace was declared, the young major came into 
his Dunbarton patrimony, and in 1784, in a very pleasant spot 
in the midst of his estate, and facing the broad highway leading 
from Dunbarton to Weare, he began to build his now famous 
house. It was finished the next year, and in 1787, the young 
man, having been elected town treasurer of Dunbarton, resolved 
to settle down in his new home, and brought there as his wife, 
Miss Sarah McKinstrey, a daughter of Dr. William McKinstrey, 
formerly of Taunton, Massachusetts, a beautiful and cultivated 
girl, just twenty years old. 

Beside building the family homestead, Caleb Stark did two 
other things which serve to make him distinguished even in a 


family where all were great. He entertained Lafayette, and 
he accumulated the family fortune. Both these things were 
accomplished at Pembroke, where the major early established 
some successful cotton mills. The date of his entertainment of 
Lafayette was, of course, 1825, the year when the marquis, after 
laying the corner stone of our monument on Bunker Hill, made 
his triumphal tour through New Hampshire. 

The bed upon which the great Frenchman slept during his 
visit to the Starks is still carefully preserved, and those guests 
who have had the privilege of being entertained by the present 
owners of the house can bear testimony to the fact that the 
couch is an extremely comfortable one. The room in which 
this bed is the most prominent article of furniture bears the 
name of the Lafayette room, and is in every particular furnished 
after the manner of a sleeping apartment of one hundred years 
ago. The curtains of the high bedstead, the quaint toilet-table, 
the bed-side table with its brass candlestick, and the pictures 
and the ornaments are all in harmony. Nowhere has a discord- 
ant modern note been struck. The same thing is" true of all the 
other apartments in the house. The Starks have one and all 
displayed great taste and decided skill in preserving the long- 
ago tone that makes the place what it is. The second Caleb, 
who inherited the estate in 1838, when his father, the brilliant 
major, died, was a Harvard graduate, and writer of repute, being 
the author of a valuable memoir of his father and grandfather. 
He collected, even more than they had done, family relics of 
interest. When he died in 1865, n ^ s two si sters > Harriett and 
Charlotte, succeeded him in the possession of the estate. 

Only comparatively recently has this latter sister died, and the 
place came into the hands of its present owner Mr. Charles F. 
Morris Stark, an heir who has the traditions of the Morris family 
to add to those of the Starks, being on his mother's side a lineal 
descendant of Robert Morris, the great financier of the Revolu' 
tion. The present Mrs. Stark is the representative of still 
another noted New Hampshire family, being the granddaughter 
of General John McNeil, a famous soldier of the Granite State. 


Few, indeed, are the homes in America which contain so much 
which, while of intimate interest to the family, is as well of wide 
historical importance. Though a home, the house has the value 
of a museum. The portrait of Major Stark, which hangs in the 
parlour at the right of the square entrance-hall, was painted by 
Professor Samuel Finley Breese Morse, the discoverer of the 
electric telegraph, a man who wished to come down to posterity 
as an artist., but is now remembered by us only as an inventor. 

This picture is an admirable presentation of its original. 
The gallant major looks down upon us with a person rather 
above the medium in height, of slight but muscular frame, with 
the short waistcoat, the high collar, and the close, narrow shoul- 
ders of the gentleman's costume of 1830. The carriage of the 
head is noble, and the strong features, the deep-set, keen, blue 
eyes, and the prominent forehead, speak of courage, intelligence, 
and cool self-possession. 

Beside this noteworthy portrait hangs a beautiful picture of 
the first mistress of this house, the Mrs. Stark who, as a girl, 
was Miss Sarah McKinstrey. Her portrait shows her to have 
been a fine example of the blonde type of beauty. The splendid 
coils of her hair are very lustrous, and the dark, hazel eyes look 
out from the frame with the charm and dignity of a St. Cecilia. 
Her costume, too, is singularly appropriate and becoming, azure 
silk with great puffs of lace around the white arms and queenly 
throat. The waist, girdled under the armpits, and the long- 
wristed mits stamp the date 1815-21. 

The portrait of General Stark, which was painted by Miss 
Hannah Crowninshield, is said not to look so much like the 
doughty soldier as does the Morse picture of his son, but Gilbert 
Stuart's Miss Charlotte Stark, recently deceased, shows the last 
daughter of the family to have fairly sustained in her youth the 
reputation for beauty which goes with the Stark women. 

Beside the portraits, there are in the house, many other choice 
and valuable antiques. Among these the woman visitor notices 
with particular interest the fan that was once the property of 


Lady Pepperell, who was a daughter, it will be remembered, of 
the Royall family, who were so kind to Major Cakb Stark in 
his youth. And to the man who loves historical things, the cane 
presented to General Stark when he was a major, for valiant 
conduct in defence of Fort William Henry, will be of especial 
interest. This cane is made from the bone of a whale and is 
headed with ivory. On the mantelpiece stands another very in- 
teresting souvenir, a bronze statuette of Napoleon I., which 
Lafayette brought with him from France and presented to Major 

The house itself is a not unworthy imitation of an English 
manor-house, with its aspect of old-time grandeur and pictur- 
esque repose. It is of wood, two and a half stories high, with 
twelve dormer windows, a gambrel roof, and a large two story 
L. In front there are two rows of tall and stately elms, and 
the trim little garden is enclosed by a painted iron fence. On 
either side of the spacious hall, which extends through the mid- 
dle of the house, are to be found handsome trophies of the chase, 
collected by the present master of the place, who is a keen 

A gorgeous carpet, which dates back fifty years, having been 
laid in the days of the beautiful Sarah, supplies the one bit of 
colour in the parlour, while in the dining room the rich silver 
and handsome mahogany testify to the old time glories of the 
place. Of manuscripts which are simply priceless, the house 
contains not a few; one, over the quaint wine cooler in the 
diningroom, acknowledging in George Washington's own hand, 
courtesies extended to him and to his lady by a member of the 
Morris family, being especially interesting. Upstairs, in the 
sunlit hall, among other treasures, more elegant but not more 
interesting hangs a sunbonnet once worn by Molly Stark herself. 

Not far off down the country road is perhaps the most beauti- 
ful and attractive spot in the whole town, the old family burying- 
ground of the Starks, in which are interred all the deceased 
members of this remarkable family, from the Revolutionary 
Major Caleb and his wife down. Here, with grim, towering 
Kearsarge standing ever like a sentinel, rests under the yew- 
trees the dust of this great family's honored dead. 



Vol. III. October-December, 1902. No. 4 

Terms, in advance, $1.00. Single copy, 25 cents, 


G. Waldo Browne, Editor, 

Memoirs of the Manchester Historic Association 


The obituary notices of a few members who have died prior 
to the year just passed, which have not been given before, are 
included in the following sketches, all of which are arranged in 
their chronological order : 



Colonel Francis Wayland Parker was born in Bedford, 
October 9, 1837, being a lineal descendant of Colonel John 
Goffe of pioneer days. His grandfather, William Parker, was 
a soldier in the Revolution, having been a drummer under Gen- 
eral John Stark at Bunker Hill, and he became the founder of 
that suburb of Manchester known as 'Squog Francis began 
his education in the village school of 'Squog, following this with 
a course at Hopkinton Academy. In the midst of his school 
life, when|he was only a little past 16, he began his long career 


of teaching, his first experience being at Corser Hill school, 
Boscawen, in the winter of 1854 5. After teaching in various 
places with success, a little over 21, he was callecUto the head 
of the grammar school of his native village where he remained 
until 1858, when he went to Carrollton, Greene County, Ills. 
The Civil war breaking out while he was here, he resigned his 
position, and enlisted as a private in the Fourth New Hamp- 
shire regiment at Manchester. He saw some bitter fighting, 
among other battles being those of Drury's Bluff and Deep 
Bottom, receiving the commission of brevet-colonel for bravery 
at the last named. Mustered out of the army in August, 1865, 
ignoring all flattering offers of political and financial opportuni- 
ties, he resumed his chosen calling by becoming principal of a 
grammar school in Manchester. 

From the beginning Colonel Parker's career was so fruitful of 
good work that it is impossible in a brief sketch like this to 
more than outline his successive changes. He went in 1868 to 
Dayton, Ohio, v\here he soon became principal of the first normal 
school, and here began those reforms in the methods of educa- 
tion, which have so left their influence upon our common 
schools as to place his name by the side of Horace Mann in 
the educational temple of fame. He became Superintendent of 
Schools in Quincy, Mass., April 20, 1875 ; in 1880, was made 
one of the supervisors of schools in Boston ; and on January 1, 
1883, entered upon his duties in the Cook County Normal 
School of Chicago, where he remained until 1899, when he be- 
came the head of the School of Education of that city. His 
health failing him he went South to recupera e in the wjnter 
of 1902. He died, while on this trip, at Pass Christian, Miss., 
March 2, 1902. (For an extended account of his life-work, 
the reader is referred to a life sketch being prepared by a 
competent person, and to be given during this volume.) His 
body was brought to this city and now reposes in the Piscata- 
quog cemetery, where it was placed May 13, 1902. His wife, 
who had preceded him by a short time into that other life, was 
buried beside him at the same time. V. S. C. 





Charles Henry Bartlett was born in Sunapee, October 15, 
1833, the son of John and Sarah J. (Sanborn) Bartlett, and 
a lineal descendant in the eighth generation of Richard Bartlett, 
who came from England to Newbury, Mass., in 1634. Mr. 
Bartlett's early life was mainly spent upon his father's farm, 
laboring through the summer season and attending school dur- 
ing the winter. He early developed a taste for literary pursuits, 
and from childhood, devoted a liberal portion of his leisure 
moments to the perusal of such books as were accessible to him. 
He contributed to the current literature of the day, and showed 
remarkable facility in both prose and poetic composition. He 
received his education in the academies at Washington and 
New London, after which he began the study of law in the 
office of Metcalf & Barton at Newport. He studied subse- 
quently with George & Foster of Concord, and with Morrison 
& Stanley in this city, being admitted to the bar of Hillsbor- 
ough County from the office of the latter in 1858. In that year 
he began the practice of his profession at Wentworth, this state, 
and in 1863 removed to this city, where he ever afterwards re- 
sided. For two years he was law partner with the late Hon. 
James U. Parker, the partnership terminating with the retire- 
ment of the latter. In June, 1867, Mr. Bartlett was appointed 
Clerk of the United States District Court for the New Hamp- 
shire District, since which time he had not actively practiced his 
profession, but had devoted himself to the duties of his office, 
which became onerous and responsible upon the passage of the 
bankrupt law, about the time of his appointment. He was 
Clerk of the New Hampshire Senate from 1861 to 1865, Gov. 
Smyth's private secretary in 1865 and 1866, Treasurer of the 
State Industrial School in 1866 and 1867. In the same year 
he was unanimously chosen City Solicitor, but declined a re- 
election. In 1872 he was elected, as a nominee of the Repub- 
lican party, Mayor of Manchester by an emphatic majority, and 


served till February 18, 1873, when he resigned in accordance 
with the policy of the National Government, which forbade 
United States officials to hold city or municipal offices. His 
co-operation with the administration on this matter, though at 
a sacrifice of a conspicuous public position, was recognized by 
President Grant through Attorney General Williams. His last 
official act as Mayor was to turn over the amount of salary which 
would have been paid him as the city's chief executive, to the 
Firemen's Relief Fund, and this act of generosity at that time 
was illustrative of the interest which he ever felt in the Fire 
Depa»tment of Manchester, 

Mr. Bartlett had been Trustee of the Merrimack River Sav- 
ings Bank from its organization in 1874, a Trustee of the Peo- 
ples Savings Bank, and a director in the' Merchants National 
Bank. He was Master of Washington Lodge of Masons from 
April, 1872, to April, 1874, and held membership to Mt. Horeb 
Royal Arch Chapter, Adoniram Council, and Trinity Com- 
mandery, Knights of Templar. He was a member of the Con- 
stitutional Convention and Chairman of the Commission ap- 
pointed by the Governor and Council, to investigate the affairs 
of the Asylum for the Insane. In 188 1 Dartmouth College con- 
ferred upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts. In 
1882 he was elected to the State Senate, resigning his posi- 
tion as Clerk of the United States District Court. At the 
aasembling of the Legislature he was chosen President of the 
Senate, an office second in rank to the Governor of the State. 
He had served as Trustee of the State Industrial School, hav- 
ing been appointed by Governor Goodell, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Judge Clark, whom he succeeded as 
Clerk of the Board. He was Clerk of the Board of Cemetery 
Trustees from its creation. He took a deep and active interest 
in the work of this body. For two years he was commander 
of the Amoskeag Veterans, and these years were made by him 
two of the most prosperous and important years in the history 
of this famous command. He was Judge Advocate on the 


staff of Gov. Hiram Tuttle, with the rank of General, and was 
President of the Manchester Board of Trade in 1896 and 1897, 
and had earlier assisted in the formation of the Board. He was 
an attendant at the Hanover Street Congregational Church and 
had been president of the society. Socially he held member- 
ship in both the Derryfield and Calumet Clubs. He beame an 
active member of the Manchester Historic Association soon 
after its incoiporation, and showed great interest in its success. 

General Bartlett was a man of rare quality, a man who would 
have achieved high success in almost any calling in life. He 
came of a family in which many names are written in high places, 
and his name deserves to be written among the highest on the 
roll. He was born at a time when Mason, Webster and Pierce 
were in the zenith of their fame. All through his school-boy 
days Webster and Pierce in New Hampshire and Story and 
Choate in Massachusetts were constantly pointed to as the 
brightest examples of the most complete success ; and inter- 
ested and attracted by the brilliant achievements of these great 
leaders he naturally turned to the law and was admitted 
to the Hillsborough Bar in 1858. Reared upon a farm he 
passed through all of the struggles and privations that intervene 
between the days of earnest toil for a living and the time, when 
by hard, painstaking work, prudence and foresight in manage- 
ment in his chosen profession he had acquired the independence 
of a comfortable fortune. 

A man of fine physique and possessed of an excellent voice 
and gifts as an orator, he was in frequent demand as a public 
speaker, responding on many and widely diverse occasions. 

In recent years he delivered three notable orations. One at 
the dedication of Stark Park on June 17, 1893, one at Amherst 
at the unveiling of the Soldiers' Monument, and the third and 
last at the Peterborough Celebration. An act illustrative of his 
generosity occurred in 1893, when after the city had made ar- 
rangements for the celebration of the 17th of June by the dedi- 
cation of Stark Park, the question was raised by the late James 


B. Straw, then City Auditor, as to the right of the city to ex- 
pend money for such a purpose. In order that there might be 
no delay in the proceedings, and to remove all doubt as to the 
celebration, General Bartlett came forward and generously of- 
fered to bear the entire expense of the celebration. At the 
commemoration of the city's semi-centennial, he was prominent 
as President of the Day on Tuesday, September 8, and at that 
time delivered an eloquent address. 

Many citizens of Manchester recall General Bartlett's rare 
affability, and his ready fund of anecdotes and illustration, 
which never failed him, whether the occasion was in the com- 
panionship of a few friends or at public gatherings. Had he 
been more aggressive and self-assertive he might undoubtedly 
have attained to high political position, but of a dignified tem- 
perament, reserved in his manner, holding his own worth at a 
true and just estimate, while expecting others to do the same, 
he had no liking for the scramble that too often accompanies 
him who seeks for political preferment. 

He died on Jan. 25, 1900, in his 67th year, while seemingly 
in the full possession of all his powers, active until within a few 
days of his decease. 

General Bartlett married, December, 1858, Miss Hannah M. 
Eastman of Croydon, who died July 25, 1890. They had two 
children, a son, Charles Leslie, who died at the age of four 
years, and one daughter, Carrie Belle, who married Mr. Charles 
H. Anderson, and survived her father. J. P. T. 


Nathan Parker Kidder, the son of Samuel B. and Mary 
A. Kidder, was born in Manchester, April 12, 1844, and was a 
descendant of General John Stark. His father was superin- 
tendent of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company's locks and 
canals, and the home, which is still standing, was near the gate 
house between the railroad and the canal. As a boy he was 
fond of outdoor sports and a great lover of horses. He enjoyed 



boating and fishing. Like the other members of the family he 
was always searching for Indian arrow heads and other relics, 
and many specimens of the Kidder collection were found by him 
and his younger brother, Selwyn, in their diligent search while 
their mates were playing. He first attended school at the "Old 
Falls schoolhouse," so called, which was burned in 1859. 
From there he went to the North Grammar school and entered 
the High school at the age of twelve. Illness caused him to 
lose several terms, and he was still a member of the school in 
1861 when the attack on Sumter was made. His young heart 
beat with patriotic impulse and he left the student's desk to en- 
list. He was refused by the mustering officer in Manchester, 
upon giving his age as seventeen, but with his unwonted deter- 
mination he made another effort and went to Concord, finding 
the same officer mustering in the recruits. When asked his age 
he replied, "eighteen," and was accepted. He was enrolled on 
January 16, 1862, in Company M, First New Hampshire Cavalry, 
his fondness for a horse causing him to choose cavalry service 
rather than infantry. His brother, Charles S., enlisted at the 
same time. As the state of New Hampshire raised only four 
companies of cavalry, they formed a battalion of the First New 
England Cavalry and were ordered to Pawtucket, R. I., Janu- 
ary 22, where they went into camp, leaving there for Washing- 
ton, March 17. While at Washington the name of the regiment 
was changed from the First New England Cavalry to the First 
Rhode Island Cavalry, which displeased the battalion so much 
that some of the officers telegraphed to Governor Berry asking 
him to come to Washington and see if he could not get the bat- 
talion out of the regiment. In May the New Hampshire bat- 
talion was ordered to Fredericksburg to report to General 
Shields, which pleased the whole battalion, as it separated them 
from the Rhode Island portion of the regiment. The "New 
Hampshire Cavalry gained for itself a high reputation for dis- 
cipline and efficiency and reflected honor upon the state/' 
Mr. Kidder participated in twenty engagements, viz : Front 


Royal, Cedar Mountain, Groveton, Second Bull Run, Chantilly, 
Aldee, Middleburg, Chancellorsville, BrandyjStation, Nottoway 
Court House, Ream's Station, Stony Creek, Milford, Kearny- 
ville, Winchester, Fisher's Hill, Waynesboro, Cedar Creek, 
Tower's Brook, and Newton. After the battle of Front Royal 
his brother Charles wrote, ''Nate is here with me and I am very 
glad he is. The officers call him one of the best men in the 
company." On June, 18, 1863, he received a bullet wound in his 
right thumb and was taken prisoner near Middleburg, Virginia. 
After traveling one hundred and thirty miles on foot in six days 
and riding all night in a freight car so crowded that the men 
could not lie down, he passed one night in Libby prison, and 
the next day went to Belle Isle, where he remained until July 
22, when he was exchanged. From the letters and diaries 
which Mr. Kidder wrote during the war much interesting mat- 
ter might be given, were it not for making this sketch too 
lengthy. I quote one incident. "Our Division went out on a 
reconnoissance on the 17th on the Millwood and Winchester 
Pike, the 1st N. H.- being in advance and Co.'s "K" and "M" 
being thrown out as skirmishers. We encountered the enemy 
and drove him back on his infantry supports when we halted 
and a private and I volunteered to go forward and reconnoitre 
some woods in our front. We dismounted and left our horses 
and proceeded cautiously into the woods, but had not proceeded 
far when we heard our names called and on going to the edge of 
the wood discovered our skirmishers had fallen back and we im- 
mediately started for them across a clearing destitute of brush 
or tree. The boys supposed we were captured but we made our 
way out through a shower of bullets that the Reb Infantry 
poured into us and got back to our command. My comrade 
was wounded in the shoulder and his carbine riddled with bul- 
lets, but I am safe and sound and ready for anything." 

During a retreat of our army across the Rappahannock on 
October 12, 1863, Mr. Kidder lost his horse and after hiding in 
the woods by day and marching by night, he was finally taken 


prisoner near Thoroughfare Gap on October 15, and again was 
confined at Belle Isle, where he remained nearly six months. 
Seldom could he be prevailed upon to tell of his sufferings and 
privations in that wretched place, but his courage did not fail 
him and that alone saved his life. Soon after his release he 
obtained a furlough of thirty days and came home. His brother 
Charles, who had been mustered in for a new term of service, 
was also at home on furlough, and his younger brother, Selwyn, 
enlisted in the same company, the loyal and patriotic mother 
saying if she had a dozen boys she would send them all. Two 
other sons were in government service but not on the field. 
After Mr. Kidder's return to the front, his regiment was in con- 
stant action. At Newton, Virginia, November 12, 1864, Mr. 
Kidder was wounded in battle, his left ankle being shattered by 
a minnie bullet. His foot was amputated at Winchester where he 
remained for a month. His brother, Selwyn, was detailed by 
the surgeon in charge to remain with him while there. Three 
days after he was wounded he wrote, "Don't worry a bit about 
me. I shall keep up good spirits, for I never was in a place yet 
where I lost them. When I look around me and see other poor 
fellows so much worse off, I think it is all for the best. It was 
lost in a good cause but I have fought my last fight for the good, 
old flag." He was transferred from Cavalry Corps Hospital, 
Winchester, to Broad and Cherry Hospital, Philadelphia, then 
to the South Street Hospital, Philadelphia, and in January, 
1865, he was transferred to Webster, U. S. Gen. Hospital at 
Manchester and discharged June 2, 1865, making nearly six 
months of hospital life. He helped many a disheartened com- 
rade by his cheerfulness. He was a brave soldier ; daring, de- 
termined, courageous and utterly fearless. 

For several years after the war he was employed by the 
Amoskeag Company at the gate house. In 1869, at the age of 
twenty -five, he served one term in the Legislature. He was a 
charter member of Louis Bell Post, No. 3, G. A. R., and of the 
Union Veterans' Union. He was Quartermaster General of the 


N. H. Volunteer Militia in 1868 and was Assistant Quarter- 
master General of the G. A. R. Dept. of N. H., in 187 1. He 
was a member of Passaconnaway Tribe of Red Men and a 
member of the Derrytield Club, at one time serving as its 

Mr. Kidder married Laura A. Montgomery, a former teacher 
of this city. Two daughters blessed their home, Eunice, who 
married Mr. Joseph H. Brown, now residing in Detroit, Michi- 
gan, and Florence, the wife of Mr. Austin M. Everett of Chel- 
sea, Mass. 

In politics he was a staunch Republican. He was elected 
city clerk in the year 1877 and held the office for twenty con 
secutive years. He was a "capable, efficient and faithful offi- 
cial, thoroughly familiar with every detail of the office, ever 
obliging and the soul of courtesy." 

In 1900 he was appointed Assistant Postmaster. While at- 
tending his duties at the postoffice he was stricken with the brain 
trouble from which he never recovered. His immediate family had 
been conscious that his mind was weakening for some time, but 
had not anticipated the result. He was taken to the State 
Hospital at Concord, N. H., for treatment, remaining there until 
released through death, May 17, 1901. Mr. Kidder was genial 
and affable ; was generous to a fault; a true friend, and he 
never spoke ill of another. L. A. K. 


It often happens that the biographer, in seeking antecedents 
for the great or good qualities of his subject, is obliged to 
search far back into the family annals, even to seek collateral 
branches of one or the other parent. The case before us is of 
an entirely different character. The immediate and the remote 
ancestors of John M. Chandler were of a type that was con- 
spicuous for its integrity and ability. They belonged to that 
class of yeomanry who conquered the wilderness, made the 
laws, and defended the early settlement from the prowling wolf 

John M. Chandler. 


and the marauding savage. Emerson has immortalized these 
men in his poem on Concord fight as "the embattled farmers." 
Born on a farm bordering on the lovely Merrimack river, at a 
time when the great founders of the Union were still living or 
only recently dead, he grew up in an atmosphere of love of 
country and respect for the integrity of political office, where 
plain ability was more esteemed than superficial brilliancy. He 
passed the period of his boyhood in storing the mind with that 
which was more likely to develop the intellect and the heart 
than to foster commercial or conventional ambitions. In one 
respect only was his nurture at all different from that which was 
usual in our best old families at this period. There was in all 
the members of his household deep love for, and ability to 
create music. In fact, in that quiet country home was to be 
heard music of a high order, produced by its own members, all 
entering joyously into the creation of musical entertainment. I 
mention this fact in particular as it had a bearing upon his sub- 
sequent career and has shown its influence upon other mem- 
bers of his family in other ways. 

At an early age it seemed to be determined that John was to 
select a professional career and his early training and teaching 
was made to enable him to take a college course. At the age 
of seventeen he entered Dartmouth College with all the en- 
thusiasm of youth and doubtless with that same capacity 
for excellence and mastery for which he was conspicuous 
in after years. The first year was successfully passed, but 
at the beginning of the second there developed in his system 
alarming symptoms of a pulmonary disorder which proved 
so grave that he was obliged to suspend his course and 
devote his energies to arrest the disease. It would be difficult 
to imagine the grief and disappointment caused by this great 
misfortune. For several years he devoted himself to the restor- 
ation of his endangered health. Yet this was not an unmitigated 
calamity, for during this period when prolonged labor and ef- 
fort was impossible, he was enabled to undertake an extensive 


course of reading in all departments of learning, permitting him 
to store his mind with that marvelous amount of knowledge 
which was apparent to those who knew him intimately. One 
or two things he possessed to a remarkable degree : A love of 
exact and critical knowledge; a memory that never misled or 
deceived ; an infinite capacity for accurate observation, and a 
temperament singularly sympathetic and easily aroused, yet he 
was able to look critically at a subject without bias or personal 

Those who knew Mr. Chandler in his later years and saw him 
in his remarkable physical perfection can with difficulty realize 
that in his youth grave fears were entertained of his ability 
to recover from what seemed a fatal disease. Mr. Chandler 
was for twenty years engaged in mercantile affairs, first serving 
a short clerkship at Nashua, afterwards as a partner in the busi- 
ness firm of Kidder & Chandler. After a successful period in 
that line he became successively assistant cashier and cashier, 
following his brother, the Hon. George B. Chandler, who suc- 
ceeded to the office of president of the well known Amoskeag 
National Bank. 

It would be almost impossible to write a sketch of John 
M. Chandler without some allusion to his two elder brothers, 
Henry and George Byron Chandler. Intimately associated 
in business, with a harmony as delightful as it was rare, there 
could scarcely be found three men of more distinctly different 
qualities working together in such absolute union. Mr. Chand- 
ler's ambitions were not to be rich merely, not to be famous or 
to seek preferment, but to do faithfully and intelligently what 
was set before him j to treat others justly and kindly, to improve 
and progress ; to live well and to have the best for use and not 
for ornament ; he was in every way a model citizen, a loyal 
friend, and a buttress of the city's integrity and honor. 

Without being at all partisan in politics Mr. Chandler was a 
staunch Democrat of the conservative type ; by religious prefer- 
ence a Unitarian, but his theology was of the kind most re- 


sembling that of his mother, Sally McAllaster, who was a Uni- 
versalist of an austerity and dignity of almost Puritan intensity, 
although consisting more in a faith and good works and a 
wholesome self-respect than in theological formulas or in def- 
inite beliefs in this or that doctrine. 

It was my good fortune to become intimately acquainted with 
Mr. Chandler in the year 1890 and to have peculiar and unusual 
opportunities of knowing him in a free and unrestrained man- 
ner ; to know that the apparent reserve was to be melted into a 
friendliness and rare good humor ; to see his quick response to 
those in misfortune; and to see his apathy and aversion towards 
crediting any evil report was to have enjoyed one of those rare 
friendships too seldom falling to the lot of man. 

John McAllaster Chandler was descended from William 
Chandler, who came to America in 1637 and settled in Rox- 
bury, Mass. All the Chandlers in New England seem to have 
sprung from this stock, his children and grandchildren spread- 
ing slowly out into the adjoining territory, occupying many 
positions of trust and serving in every capacity in early colonial 
times. Zachariah, great-grandson of William, married Margaret 
Bishop, daughter of Thomas Bishop, one of the Narragansett 
soldiers. Through grants made to those who served in King 
Philips's war, he became possessor of lands on the Merrimack 
river and his son, Thomas, moved to Bedford, New Hampshire, 
then known as Narragansett No. 5, about 1750, and was married 
to Hannah Goffe, this being the first couple married in that 
township and their house was the first frame dwelling built 
there. Zachariah, his son, born in 1751, was one of the Revolu- 
tionary patriots and selectman in 1784. He bought the Old 
Billings collection of sacred music for his sons, Thomas and 
Samuel, which was supposed to be the first singing book in 
Bedford. This seems to have been the origin of the musical 
taste alluded to in this sketch. 

Thomas Chandler was much interested in music and seems 
to have been a many-sided man, for he was Justice of the 


Quorum in 1808, captain of the militia in 1815, representative 
and senator in the State Legislature and member of Congress 
from 1829 to 1833. He was a very tall man, vigorous phys- 
ically, and worked in the fields in his 88th year, dying at the 
age of 93. His brother Samuel was the father of Zachariah 
Chandler, so widely known afterwards during the times of the 
Civil War, being United States Senator and serving in that 
capacity, representing Michigan in the Senate for eighteen 
years, later becoming secretary of the interior under Grant. 
Thus Zachariah Chandler had a son and a grandson who bore 
high nationl honors, both born in the same town and raised on 
adjoining farms, the son a Jeffersonian Democrat and the grand- 
son an ardent Republican. 

John M. Chandler was born November 3, 1834 ; married 
Lavinia Pease Foss in i860, by whom he had one daughter, 
Mary Chandler (Burpee), who has a son, Chandler Burpee. 
Mr. Chandler married a second time, Lucy Ruggles of New Bed- 
ford, by whom he had a daughter, Eloise, both surviving him. 

On the 5th of December, 1901, after an unusually busy and 
pleasant day, Mr. Chandler left the Amoskeag National Bank 
with a cheery "good night" and was suddenly stricken, expir- 
ing instantly, in the very manner he had always expressed 
as being the ideal way of passing out of this life, leaving Man- 
chester the poorer by the loss of so much that was noble and 
endearing, but richer in the remembrance of an ideal citizen. 

T. P. W. R. 


William A. Truesdale was the son of John and Harriet 
Truesdale, who came to Manchester in its early days from 
Cambridge, Mass. The Truesdales belonged to Revolutionary 
stock, having come to this country from England several genera- 
tions before the uprising of the colonies. William was born in 
Manchester July, 9, 185 1, and was educated in the local schools. 
His father had been for some years a manufacturer of trunks, 

LrriiKK S. Proctor 


and upon finishing his education he entered his employ. But 
at the end of two years he left to learn the trade of machinist at 
the Amoskeag machine shop. Later he went to work at the 
Manchester Locomotive works, where he remained until 1872. 
The increasing business of his father now attracted him hither, 
and a partnership was formed under the name of J. Truesdale 
& Son, which continued until the death of the parent, October 
18, 1891 The firm did a large business in trunks and bags, 
both retail and wholesale, but upon the decease of his father 
William limited his business to the wholesale trade. The dis- 
astrous fire of February 7, 189 2 ; which destroyed the Varick 
block, ruined his stock. Obliged to seek new headquarters he 
moved to commodious rooms in the building near the passenger 
station, of the Everett Knitting works. About this time he in- 
vented a wall trunk that was received with great favor. 

In politics Mr. Truesdale was a Republican, being an active 
worker in his party. He was honored with two elections to the 
State Legislature from Ward 4, 1890-2 and 1892-4, his popu- 
larity was shown by the large vote accorded him at both elec- 
tions. He was an honorary member of the Captain Joseph 
Freschl post, G. A. R. He became a member of the Manches- 
ter Historic Association on September 18, 1901, and had he 
lived would doubtless have been a valuable member, as he was 
greatly interested in historical matters. He died after a short 
illness of heart difficulty, January 8, 1902, is survived by a 
wife and two sons, Albert C. and Edward, and a daughter, 
Genevieve R. One sister also outlives him, Mrs. James S. 
Wilde, of Kobe, Japan. In personal appearance he was a man 
of medium height, slender build, active in his movements, hav- 
ing a genial nature and the many good qualities which help 
form an upright character. V. S. C. 


Luther Stowell Proctor was born January 2, 1835, an d 
died March 1, 1902. His paternal ancestors were English, 


coming to America from England in 1635 an< ^ settling in 
Ipswich, Mass. His grandfather came to Londonderry, now 
Derry, and in 1806 his father, John Proctor, bought the land 
bordering on the shores of Lake Massabesic and built the 
house, which is now the Proctor homestead and where he was 
born and always lived. Like most boys of those days his early 
education was acquired principally during the winter months 
and a part of the time his teacher was the late William E. 
Moore, who was about the same age as many of his pupils. 
Mr. Proctor was most thoroughly a home man and did not 
care for public or political life to any extent, though he served 
as Representative to the State Legislature for two years, 1896- 
97. In his early days, and later on in middle life, he was en- 
gaged quite extensively in the wood and lumber business, but 
during the last few years of his life ill health prevented him 
from getting out of doors very much during the winters. His 
father's farm comprised nearly all of what is now Youngsville, 
and he was known as the largest land owner in that vicinity. 
Several acres of this patrimony bordering on the shores of Lake 
Massabesic were purchased of Luther by the city of Manchester 
in 1896, when the latter obtained possession of the land as far 
as possible along the lake in order to protect the water supply. 

Mr. Proctor always attended the First M. E. church and 
often told how he together with other boys and girls took a 
short cut through the woods back of the Huse homestead, al- 
ways with their shoes hung over their shoulders till in sight of 
the church, when they would put them on and attend church in 
proper attire. When the old house was moved and remodelled, 
he still retained his pew which was the property of his father 
before him, as it was then the custom to own and not hire 
church pews. He was one of the earliest members of Amos- 
keag Grange and a constant attendant at the meetings until 
within a few years, and was treasurer for several years. 

He also belonged to the Old Resident's Association and was 
one of the most interested and active members at the Semi- 


Centennial celebration in 1896. His excellent memory en- 
abled him to recall the old residents, nearly all of whom he 
knew, although many were years older than himself. 

In stature he was a large man, tall and well proportioned, 
and weighed about 225 pounds. These proportions he inherited 
from his maternal ancestors. He possessed a remarkable 
memory, and many an amusing anecdote would be related by 
him concerning some of the early settlers around Lake Massa- 
besic and Webster's mills. He became a member of the Man- 
chester Historic Association September 18, 1901. In his de- 
cease the society lost one who was ever interested in historical 
matters and the community a citizen of sterling worth. 

G. W. B. 

Joseph R. Weston was born in Goffstown February 27, 
1842, and was the son of Samuel S. and Roxanna Weston. 
His father and his grandfather were village blacksmiths, but the 
subject of our sketch looked to another trade for his calling. 
Upon finishing a course in the school of his native town Joseph 
attended the Spring Street school in this city. Upon leaving 
school, after working for a time in the sash and blind shop of 
Jeremiah Austin at Goffstown, he entered the employment of 
his brother Alonzo as clerk in the latter's clothing store in this 
city. Later on he worked for the dry goods merchant, William 
Putney, and then for Mr. Otis Barton. He next launched into 
business for himself in partnership with his brother Samuel in 
Mercantile block. His brother soon after dying, he conducted 
his store alone for a time, when he admitted Mr Charles Sen- 
ter as a partner. On August 28, 1875, he opened a store on 
the site now occupied by the Pickering building, and advertised 
it as "J oe Weston's New Dry Goods Store." This became a 
decided success, and in February, 1880, he admitted to partner- 
ship in his flourishing business Mr. James W. Hill, one of his 
clerks. Upon the completion of the Pembroke block this firm 
removed there in April, 1891, where they conducted a success- 
ful business. In 1897 he sold out his interest to his partner 


and retired to devote his time to looking after his investments 
in real estate. Quoting from the source from which we draw 
most of our information : "Mr. Weston's sagacity and ability as 
a business man were clearly demonstrated by his careful atten- 
tion to details and the systematic manner in which all of his 
business transactions were entered upon. He is said to have 
been able to tell at a moment's notice just how his affairs stood. 
He was a man of energy and perseverance, characteristics which 
were displayed in all of his undertakings. He was very fond of 
outdoor sports." 

Mr. Weston was an attendant upon the Universalist church. 
He belonged to the Masonic fraterntty. being a member of the 
Washington lodge, October 3, 187 1, Mt. Horeb Royal Arch 
chapter November 13, 1872, Adoniram council February 3, 
1873, a °d Trinity Commandery March 21, 1873. He became a 
member of the Manchester Historic Association in September, 

His decline in health began with injuries received by being 
struck by an electric car near the corner of Elm and Bridge 
streets a little over a year before his death on March 28. He 
is survived by a wife, Mrs. Helen (Fitts) Weston, and a daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Grace Johnson of Nashua, and a son, Fred M. Weston 
of New York city. One brother, Alonzo H., of this city, and 
one sister, Mrs. Anna Kimball of Bradford, Mass., also out- 
live him. The funeral was conducted at his late home on 
Salmon street under the auspices of the Knights Templar, 
and the body borne to rest in Pine Grove cemetery. C. 


The subject of this memoir was one of the early members of 
the Historic Association, and continued to manifest an interest 
in its work as years passed. 

Mrs. Herrick's ancestry was of the old colonial stock, and all 
its family traditions and associations centered around the events 
of the Revolution. 

The birth date of our subject was September 8, 1824, when 
her father's family resided in New Boston on a farm received 

Mrs. Clarisa P. Herrick. 


by inheritance from her maternal grandfather's estate. Her 
parents were Robert and Elizabeth (Kelso) Parkinson, and she 
was the youngest of eight children, three boys and five girls, all 
of whom lived to mature life. By profession her father was a 
civil engineer, and served several years on a survey of the 
northern part of New Hampshire in the vicinity of Dixville 
Notch, where he ultimately cleared a farm in the township of 
Columbia, but becoming embarrassed by losses in marine lum- 
ber at Portland, Maine, from the embargo of the war of 1812, 
removed to New Boston, the old family home of the mother. 
At this fine old typical New England town the family were edu- 
cated and trained in all the moral and intellectual lines com- 
mon to the best class of our rural population. The trend to a 
good education in the family was perhaps stimulated by an an- 
cestral bias, the paternal grandfather, Henry Parkinson, being 
a graduate of Princeton, and a noted teacher at Concord and 
Canterbury in the first quarter of the last century. He had 
also been a good patriot and soldier in the early days of our 
Revolution, having served as commissary to General Stark at 
the battle of Bunker Hill and later holding the same position 
at Ticonderoga. 

The family removed from New Boston to Nashua about 1837, 
and in the ten years following, the members completed their 
education in the schools and academies of that day. 

As a teacher, Mrs. Herrick's early womanhood was spent in 
Milford, Hudson and Nashua. Her marriage occurred in 1849, 
and the subsequent sixteen years were spent in New York city 
and Brooklyn, where her husband was employed as an illus- 
trator of books by city publishers and also as teacher and prin- 
cipal manager in the "New York School of Design for Women," 
Cooper Institute. 

The family removed to Manchester, N. H., in 1865 where it 
has since been located, and where she died August 16, 1902, of 
heart difficulty. 

Mrs. Herrick has left an honorable name and precious mem- 
ory to society. Her sons, Allan E., Robert P. and Henry A., 
are well settled in life with honorable records, and a promising 


future. One sister, Mrs. Frances C. P. Wheeler now lives at 
North Woburn, Mass., being the only living representative of 
the large and honorable family. H. 


Horace Pettee was the son of Ebenezer and Lydia (Hall) 
Pettee and a lineal descendant of William Petty who came from 
England and settled in Weymouth, Mass., about 1638. He was 
born in Francestown, N. H., December 1, 1817, and died in 
Manchester October 7, 1902. He was educated in the common 
schools and academy of his native town, remained in business 
with his father until 1843, when he came to Manchester and began 
a long and honorable business career. He became bookkeeper 
and confidential clerk for Mr. David Hamblett ; who was then 
carrying on an extensive business in lumber and grain in Piscat- 
aquog, now West Manchester. After the death of Mr. Hamb- 
lett Mr. Pettee administered the estate and closed out the large 
and varied interests involved with marked success. In 1849 he 
engaged in the wholesale and retail grain business with Jere- 
miah Abbott, locating in the Museum building, of which he was 
part owner for many years, on Elm street. In 1864 Mr. Abbott 
retired and Mr. Pettee's brother, the late Holmes R. Pettee, be- 
came associated with him, the firm being known as H. & H. R. 
Pettee. In 1876 he retired from active trade. 

Coming to Manchester only three years after Rev. Dr. Wal- 
lace began his long pastorate over the First Congregational 
Church, he immediately identified himself with it. He held the 
office of deacon most worthily for twenty-nine years, and at the 
time of his death was deacon emeritus. He was a director of 
the First Congregational Society several years, and afterwards 
its president, continuing in this office through the time when the 
new church was being built. He was also chairman of the 
building committee and financial agent, giving his time and 
business ability, about two years to the work, thereby contribut- 
ing greatly to the successful completion of the enterprise. He 
was a constant attendant on all religious services, long a teacher 
in the Sunday school and constantly engaged in every Christian 

ill #^ 

Horace Pettee. 


activity. He was also interested in various benevolent organ- 
izations. For fifty years he was connected with the City Mis- 
sionary Society, serving successively as member of the Board of 
Control, as treasurer of the society, and as its president. He 
was treasurer of the New Hampshire Central Congregational 
Club from its organization till 1901, when he declined re-elec- 
tion. He was an active member of the Old Residents' A-soci- 
tion and held offices in it, and became a member of the Man- 
chester Historic Association in September, 1901. 

In politics he was a Republican and was honored with many 
offices by his party. He was a member of the city council three 
years, during two of which he was its president ; served as al- 
derman two years and represented his ward in the State Legis- 
lature during the stirring days of Ihe Civil War. He was active 
during this period in promoting the Union cause. Prevented 
from enlisting, he sent a substitute at his own expense that he 
might be personally represented on the battlefield. 

Deacon Pettee was married in 1843 t0 Elizabeth F. Wilson 
of Francestown, who died in '1855. Later he married Sarah E. 
Adams of New Boston, who survives him, besides two sons, 
Rev. James H. Pettee, Missionary of the American Board in 
Japan, and Prof. Charles H. Pettee, Dean of the New Hamp- 
shire College at Durham. 

If "fidelity is success," then the life of this strong, earnest 
man of affairs, who was faithful to the end in every relation of 
life, must be considered a grandly successful one. S. E. P. 

Andrew Mungall was born in Glasgow, Scotland, Decem- 
ber 31, 1828, and died in Manchester October 8. 1902. 
His parents were Robert and Margaret (Rankin) Mungall. 
The family belonged to Clackmannanshire, in the east of 
Scotland, having originally come from France during the 
persecution of the Huguenots. The name was then spelled 
Mongault. The subject of our memoir, one of a large family 
with moderate means, he went to work at the age of ten years in 
a calico print works. Leaving this place a few years later he 


went to learn the cotton dyeing trade, which occupation he fol- 
lowed until three years before his death. He studied chemis- 
try under Professor Penny at the Andersonian University, 
Glasgow, and later became assistant to his former instructor in 
his evening classes. He was in the employ of the John Bar- 
tholomew & Co., dyers, in Glasgow, for nearly thirty years. Be- 
ginning in a minor position he rose step by step, until he be- 
came manager of the entire works, holding this position until 
the firm went out of business. In 1881 he came to Manchester 
and was engaged by the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company, 
when he introduced into their mills what is called the "long 
chain system" of dyeing, and which had never until then been 
put into operation in the United States. He was superintend- 
ent of dyeing with this company for nearly twenty years, retir- 
ing in 1899. 

Mr. Mungall was active in Church and Sunday school work, 
and was for many years an elder in Bridgeton Parish Church, 
Glasgow, and he was superintendent of the Sunday school in 
connection with this church. Upon coming to Manchester he 
became a member of the Franklin Street Congregational Church, 
which he retained until his death. He took his Masonic de- 
grees in Scotland, and affiliated with Lafayette Lodge in Man- 
chester. He was also a member of Trinity Commandery here \ 
was a life member of Clan McKenzie, and was a member of the 
Scots Charitable Society of Boston, Mass. Possessing a deep 
interest in historical matters he became a member of the Man- 
chester Historic Association in September, 190 1. 

Mr. Mungall married in July, 185 1, Miss Isabella Kirkwood 
Kelly of Glasgow. Eight children were born to them. They 
celebrated their golden wedding anniversary in July, J9oi,upon 
which happy occasion seventeen grandchildren were present 
with their parents and others. He is survived by his widow 
and six children, four sons and two daughters, as follows : 
Robert, overseer of the Norwich Dye works, Norwich, Conn. ; 
Samuel, assistant superintendent of the Amoskeag Dye house j 
Andrew, superintendent of the Canadian Cotton corporation, 
Milltown, N. B. ; Thomas, who succeeded his father as superin 

Andrew Mungall. 


tendent of the Amoskeag Bye house ; Mrs. Isabella Menzies of 
this city, and Mrs. Janet Nicoll of Dundee, Scotland. Two 
brothers, residing in Scotland, George and James, also survive 
him. He was buried in Pine Grove cemetery. His funeral, 
which took place from his late home, 506 Belmont street, was 
conducted by Rev. B. W. Lockhart of the Franklin Street 
Church, and Rev. D. J. Many of the Westminster Presbyterian 
Church, and was largely attended by sorrowing friends and 

The local press in speaking of Mr. Mungall, said fittingly : 
"He was the perfect type of the sturdy, honest, large-hearted 
man, possessing an irreproachable character, a genial tempera- 
ment and a good judgment. All who knew him respected him, 
and those who knew him intimately, loved him. In every circle 
in which he moved his presence was distinctly felt, and his 
weighty influence was ever on the side of right and truth." 

G. W. B. 


Joseph Kidder, M. A., son of Samuel Phillips and Betsey 
(Stark) Kidder, was born in Manchester, March 13, 1819. His 
father was a descendant of James Kidder of East Grinstead, 
Sussex, England, who came to Cambridge, Mass., as early as 
1650. His mother was a granddaughter of General Stark of 
Revolutionary fame. 

The subject of this memoir was the fourth of a family of five 
children. His father died when he was four years old, leaving 
this large family to the care of the mother. Mrs. Kidder was a 
woman of energy and courage, and managed to keep the flock 
together for a time and provide for their support. Joseph's 
early life was spent upon a farm of about one hundred acres, 
extending from the river back to Oak Hill. The house which 
was situated near the water on what would be the edge of the 
upper Amoskeag canal, has been moved from its location and 
is known as the Campbell house, said to be still standing south 
of the gate house at the Falls At ten years of age Joseph was 
able among the hardy working population of the time and place 


to pay his own way. He was a willing and studious attendant 
at the district school and eagerly read such books as he could 
obtain, a larger number than might be supposed, for the father, 
Samuel Phillips Kidder, was a director in the Derryfield Social 
Library and we may be sure that the son had the perusal of 
some of those classics which were the foundation of many a 
school boy's knowledge in that time, Pilgrim's Progress, The 
Spectator, The Arabian Nights, Don Quixote, Rollin's Ancient 
History, Rasselas, the Scottish Chiefs, beside many books on 
theological and ethical subjects such as our fathers used to 
read. At the age of fifteen, when the sandy banks of the Mer- 
rimack were beginning to feel the birth throes of a manufactur- 
ing city, Joseph obtained employment as clerk in a store, where 
he continued three years, after which he entered Pembroke 
Academy, then at the height of its prosperity, under the charge 
of Col. Isaac Kinsman. At this school he spent several terms 
as student, assistant teacher and editor of a semi-monthly paper 
called the "People's Herald." His academic education was 
completed at Lebanon and at Dummer Academy, West New. 
bury, Mass. At this latter school, in 1900, Mr. Kidder attended 
the unveiling of a memorial tablet to the memory of the founder, 
Ex-Governor Dummer. 

In 181 2, having retired from the publication of the People's 
Herald, Mr. Kidder, associated with W. H. Kimball, established 
the Manchester Democrat which afterwards became the Demo- 
crat and American. The next year, in company with Mr. John 
M. Hill of Concord, he started a campaign paper called the Ad 
vocate of Democracy, which ceased publication with the close 
of the election which called it forth. 

From 1845 t0 ^47 he was editor of the Manchester Saturday 
Messenger and was a writer for several other papers. From 
1881 to 1884 he was editor of the Odd Fellows' department of 
the New Hampshire Statesman, and later, up to his death, con- 
ducted a similar department for the Manchester Union. In 
1845, m company with his older brother, Col. John S. Kidder, 
and John M. Chandler, late cashier of the Amoskeag National 
Bank, with whom at various times and for longer or shorter 



periods was associated John F. Duncklee, he opened a store for 
the sale of general merchandise at No. 36 Elm street, on the 
site now occupied by the Weston block. Growing with the 
growth of the town this came to be known as the "family store,'' 
and did a large and increasing business for barter, for cash, or 
for credit. The farmers brought their produce and a large 
territory had its wants supplied in a satisfactory manner. For 
twenty eight years this was a center of trade until the firm was 
dissolved by mutual consent. 

During the time spent in mercantile pursuits Mr. Kidder gave 
much attention to local public affairs ; took a deep interest in 
education, was for some years a member of the school board 
and superintendent of schools. Later he was president of the 
Board of Trade, vice president of the Old Folks' and of the 
Historic Associations. He was a trustee of the State Industrial 
School, to which institution he devoted much time and where 
he delivered many addresses, a trustee also of the Agricultural 
College at Durham, where he received the degree of Doctor of 
Science, and while not an Alumnus of Dartmouth, that institu- 
tion, in recognition of his public usefulness in many directions, 
made him Master of Arts. Interested in all that pertains to 
agriculture he became a member of the Grange and was chap- 
lain of Amoskeag Grange, P. of H., from 1896 to his decease. 
He became widely known throughout the state as a lecturer, one 
lecture in particular on the cave in Kentucky, having been many 
times repeated. In addition to these things Mr. Kidder was an 
active and earnest worker in the Universalist denomination to 
which he belonged and in the church of which he was a Sunday 
school teacher. As a lay preacher he conducted services at 
many funerals and not infrequently occupied the pulpit in his 
pastor's absence. 

At the close of his mercantile career Mr. Kidder felt free to 
devote himself to what must be considered the great purpose of 
his life. He has told us how at four years of age he was im- 
pressed at the sight of the Masonic emblems at his father's 
funeral. In 1845 ne joined the Hillsboro Lodge, No. 2, Order 
of Odd Fellows. On his seventy-fifth birthday he had taken 


every degree that is conferred by the Order, was Grand Master 
in 1856, a member of the Sovereign Grand Lodge ten years, 
two years Grand Marshal, and since 1878 was Secretary of the 
Grand Lodge, and of the Grand Encampment. He was made 
a Mason in Washington Lodge of Manchester, May 4, 1864 
became a member of Mount Horeb Arch Chapter January 4, 
1865, of Adoniram Council Royal and Select Masters, Septem- 
ber 7, 1865, Trinity Commandery Knights Templar, April 26. 
He had received the rites of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish 
Rite to and including the 326. degree. He was Chaplain of 
Washington Lodge for over twenty years and of Mount Horeb 
Chapter for twenty-two years, of Trinity Commandery for 
twenty four years. He was Master of Washington Lodge in 
1869, High Priest of Mount Horeb Chapter in 1873-74 and 
1889, Treasurer of the Grand Lodge of Masons from 1874 to 
the time of his death, had been Prelate of the Grand Command- 
ery since September, 1900, and Chaplain of the Grand Chapter 
since May, 1882. 

Mr. Kidder was quiet and unassuming in dress and deport- 
ment, walking with alert step and usually with eyes fixed on the 
ground, as if in thought. He was of medium height, well pro- 
portioned and as he passed the eighth decade the casual ob- 
server saw few tokens of advancing age in mind'or body. What 
his loss means to the two great associations in which he was so 
prominent an actor, to society in genera] and to the church of 
which he was a life-long member may well be left to others to 
tell. There was no member of the Manchester Historic Associ- 
ation, of which he was a charter member, probably better fitted 
than he to aid the accomplishment of its objects. Born on his- 
toric ground in old Derryfield, in that section of the region 
around which centered its legendary stories of fisher and boat- 
man, with all its large and its small happenings coming within 
the scope of his memory, he of all others was fitted to reproduce 
the scenes of other days. But his time was too fully occupied 
and in the few years numbered by the existence of this associa- 
tion he had found time for only one reminiscent address. 
(Given on pages 65-78 of this volume.) 


Mr. Kidder married Sarah Elizabeth, daughter of Sarah and 
Joseph Smith of Concord, Mass., and if the blood of Revolu- 
tionary heroes coursed in the veins of the husband, both grand- 
fathers of the bride were among the minute men who "Fired the 
shot heard around the world." It was a happy and congenial 
union, and its golden anniversary was observed at the home on 
Myrtle street, in 1900, We are told that Mr. Kidder was much 
attached to his home. Judging from the part taken in the liter- 
ary and artistic entertainments of the city it is known to have 
been a home of culture and refinement. About the middle of 
July of the present year Mr. Kidder was attacked with serious 
disorder of the liver from which he passed away October 29, 
1902. A great concourse of citizens attended his funeral at the 
church on Lowell street. He is survived by the widow, Sarah 
Elizabeth Kidder, and by three daughters, Maria F., Annie E. 
and Mary M. ; another daughter, Sarah Josepha Kidder, died 
May 3, 1901. 

Children of Samuel Phillips Kidder and Betsy Stark Kidder, granddaughter of 
Maj. Gen. John Stark : 

Samuel Blodget Kidder, born December 26, 1806. 

Elizabeth Kidder, born March 27, 1809. Married Nathaniel Emmons Morrill. 
John Sullivan Kidder, born May 31, 1811. 

Mary White Kidder, born August 31, 1813. Married Moody Currier. 
Joseph Kidder, born March 13, 1819. 

Susan Stark Kidder, born June 1, 1821. Married Dr. David Palmer, and is the 
only survivor. 

F. B. E. 

Charles William Temple was born at Hyde Park, Ver- 
mont, July ii, 1846, and died of heart failure in Manchester, 
N. H., November 7, 1902. He was the only son of Charles and 
Eleanor (Flanders) Temple, but he had two sisters and three 
half sisters, his mother having been previously married. His 
father died when he was three years old, and one of his young 
sisters soon after. Hoping to find better employment through 
which to support her family, his mother came to Manchester, 
with her older daughters, leaving Charles and his sister with 
relatives until she could succeed in establishing a home which 
would warrant her in sending for them. This she did when he 
was about ten years old. Obliged to do what he could toward 
supporting the family, Charles had only the most meagre oppor- 


tunities to obtain a schooling, and he was not able to attend the 
grammar school. During such scanty time as he did attend 
school he worked through vacations doing errands and in a 
grocery store. 

When he was scarcely twelve years old he entered the em- 
ployment of the old, noted Fisk Bookstore, beginning as chore 
boy and then as clerk. He remained steadily with Mr. Fisk 
for a number of years, winning the confidence of his employer 
by his faithfulness and honesty, and through his frugality and 
perseverance he was able to buy out his employer when he re- 
tired from business in July, 1875. At this time Mr. Henry A. 
Farrington became associated with him in the business, though 
not as an active partner, and their pleasant relationship was not 
severed until about seven years since. In the interval the busi- 
ness of Temple & Farrington had so increased that new and 
more commodious quarters were necessary Thus upon the 
completion of the Pickering building in 1892 they moved in to 
occupy the entire ground floor, as well as other rooms in the 
building. Upon the retirement of Mr. Farrington, in 1896, Mr. 
Temple continued his large business alone. 

In August, 1867, he was married to Miss Lucinda L. Chase, 
by whom he had two sons, Harry Chase, who died when he 
was thirteen years of age, and Charles Arthur, who was asso- 
ciated with him in business and who succeeds in its manage 
ment. Besides this son he is survived by his wife. Possessing 
a genial and courteous nature he was a prominent member of 
both the Calumet and Derryfield clubs, a member of Washing- 
ton Lodge, A. F. and A. M., of Mount Horeb Chapter, R. A., 
Adoniram Council, R. and S. M., and of Trinity Commandery, 
Knights of Templar. He was also a 3 2d degree Mason in the 
Scottish rite, belonging to the Nashua membership, and Mystic 
Shrine, the Washington Encampment and Wildey Lodge, I. O. 
O. F. He was a member and regular attendant at the Franklin 
Street church. He became a member of the Manchester His- 
toric Association in September, 1901. Strictly honest and up- 
right in his dealings, prompt and courteous in his business asso- 
ciations, through his persevering industry building up a large 

9 & 

Joseph H. Wiggin. 


business, Mr. Temple was in the fullest sense of the word a 
self-made man, and his sudden death cameras a great shock to 
the community in which he had so long been a prominent 
factor. G. W. B. 


At his home on Union street, near Tremont common, early 
Wednesday afternoon, November 12, Mr. Joseph H. Wiggin, one 
of Manchester's best known and most respected business men, 
died of Bright's disease after a long illness. His failing health 
had not permitted him to be at his place of business for several 
months, but it was not generally understood that he was n puch 
a serious condition. He had passed the summer at his old 
home in Massachusetts, and had returned to this city only 
about two weeks before his death. Mr. Wiggin was born in 
Dover and spent his boyhood days there, attending the public 
schools of that city. Later he attended Atkinson Academy, 
and then the Hopkinton Academy of New Haven, Conn., from 
which institution he graduated. He then entered the employ 
of his father, who was engaged in the wholesale grocery and im- 
porting business in Boston. At the age of eighteen years he be- 
gan a successful business career in Portland, Me., and soon after 
opened a store in Boston and began to ship general groceries to 
the Southern States. Later he removed to Deerfield, where for 
ten years he carried on a large lumber business. In 1874, dis- 
posing of his interests in Deerfield, he came^to Manchester and 
started in the "Old Ark," which stood on the present site of 
Dunlap block, the Manchester Tea Company, which was a suc- 
cess from its inception and has continued so ever since. After 
remaining there four years he removed into a store in Music 
Hall building, where he stayed four years, when he erected on 
land leased of Alonzo W. Quint the building he occupied until 
his decease. 

Mr. Wiggin was a thorough business man, and he kept well 
abreast of the times. His establishment has always been up to 
date and has been ably managed by him. While a genial, so- 
ciable man and a member of secret and social organizations, he 


was essentially a home man. His home was his favorite resting 
place, and when not engaged in his business he spent most of 
his time with his family and his books. He was a devoted hus- 
band and father, and a substantial, upright and esteemed citi- 
zen. A believer in good government, he did what he could to 
further it, but was never what could be called active in politics. 
He was never a candidate for office. Mr. Wiggin was made a 
Mason in Rockingham Lodge of Candia, and he was a member 
of Aleppe Temple, Mystic Shrine, of Boston. He was also an 
Odd Fellow, being a member of Union Lodge of Deerfield, 
while he belonged to Pioneer Lodge, A. O. U. W., of this city. 
He also belonged to the Knights of Honor. He became a mem- 
ber of the Manchester Historic Association in September, 1901. 

The paternal ancestors of Mr. Wiggin for two generations 
were Samuel L, Wiggin (1), who lived in Dover,' N. H., was en- 
gaged in shipping, and died of yellow fever contracted in New 

Orleans. He married Mary Fisher, daughter of Colonel 

Fisher, of Dover, a farmer in good circumstances, and whose 
farm comprised what is now the business portion of the city. 
Their children were Janvrin, Samuel, Joseph, Charles and Sally. 
The subject of our memoir was the son of the second child* 
Samuel L. (2), who was born in Dover, and continued a resi" 
dent of L that city until his death in middle life. He carried on 
an extensive wholesale and retail grocery trade, besides doing 
an important business in Boston. He married Harriet L. 
Bruce, by whom he had seven children, Samuel L. (3), Joseph 
H., r Mary Bell, Ellen Frances, Elizabeth Bruce and Harriet L. 
Mrs. Harriet L. Wiggin was the daughter of Thomas Bruce, Jr., 
who settled in Sanbornton, N. H. He was the village black- 
smith, and a man of prominence in the town. He was twice 
married, Harriet being the daughter of his second wife, Miss 
Sophia Footman. The father of Thomas Bruce, Jr., was 
Thomas Bruce, one of three brothers who came to this country 
from Scotland. 

Mr. Wiggin is survived by his widow, who was Susan A. ? 
daughter of Alpheus and Nancy (Hodgdon) Rogers of Dover, 
and two daughters, Miss Ellen Frances, of this city, and Miss 



Pauline Gertrude, librarian of the University of West Virginia. 
He also left three sisters, Mrs. Charles Wood, of Lowell, Mass., 
Mrs. Seth Bennett, of New York city, Mrs. Harry F. Ricker, of 
New Orleans, La. He rests in the family lot in Chapel lawn, 
Pine Grove cemetery. G. W. B. 


Ebenezer Ferren, one of the oldest and best known citizens 
of Manchester, died at his home, corner of Lowell and Walnut 
streets, November 15, 1902, of old age and general debility. Un- 
til about four weeks before his death Mr. Ferren was a familiar 
figure upon the streets of Manchester. His last illness was not 
painful, but was a steady decline, due to the gradual weakening 
of the vital forces. His age was 85 years, 9 months and 3 
days. Eben Ferren, as he was familiarly called, was a native 
of Goffstown, N. H., where he was born February 12, 1817. 
He was a son of Ebenezer and Mary (Eaton) Ferren. On both 
sides he came of good, patriotic ancestry. His paternal grand- 
father, Philip Ferren, was a Lieutenant in the Nineth New 
Hampshire Regiment which did valuable service in the Revo- 
lution, and was one of those who passed the memorable winter 
at Valley Forge. His grandfather on his mother's side, Sam- 
uel Eaton, was one of the heroes of Bennington under the heroic 
Stark. The Ferrens are of English ancestry, and the original 
ancestor landed in this country about 1640. 

Mr. Ferren early adopted a talent for trade, and at the age 
of twenty he was upon the road, carrying two tin trunks filled 
with "Yankee notions," and later riding upon a "peddler's cart." 
He followed this vocation several years, making money, so that 
he was able in 1845 to °P en a dry goods and carpet store in 
Manchester. He located on the site of the present Ferren 
Block, on Elm street, which he built, the lower part of which he 
used as a store, and the upper story was his home. After 
twenty years of successful business, he retired with a fair com- 
petence. Between 1848 and 1 881 he bought considerable real 
estate which appreciated handsomely. 

In politics Mr. Ferren was a staunch Prohibitionist, and was 


a delegate to the National convention of that party at Indian- 
apolis in 1888, and again at Saratoga Springs in 1891. He was 
frequently a candidate on the State Prohibition ticket. As far 
back as 1847, he was a member of the Sons of Temperance. 

He was a member of the First Congregational Church of 
Manchester, and was Treasurer of the Sunday School for ten 
years, from 1883 to 1893. He was a member of the Man- 
chester Board of Trade from the time of its inception in 1890, 
and became a member of the Manchester Historic Association 
in January, 1897. The only fraternal organization in which he 
held membership was the Order of Free and Accepted Masons, 
being a member of Washington Lodge of Manchester. A man 
of strong convictions, and of an extremely benevolent disposi- 
tion, perhaps no better revelation of his personal character is 
possible than is indicated by the saying attributed to him, "I 
have a God that is worth more to me than all the money that is 

He married August 7, 1849, Miss Adelaide E. Badger of 
Warner, who survives him. F. M. C. 


William Parker Merrill was a native and life-long resi- 
dent of Manchester, and one of its prominent citizens. He 
came of excellent stock. His great-grandfather and grand- 
mother were Abraham and Mehitable (Stevens) Merrill, from 
Haverhill, Mass., who were among the earliest settlers of this 
town. Two of their ten children were born in Haverhill, three 
in Plaistow, as they journeyed northward, and the last five 
in what is now Manchester, where the family settled about 
1745, at Merrill's Falls, or Merrill's Ferry, as it was frequently 
called, just below the old Granite bridge, and on or near the 
site of the Gas Works in more recent years. Abraham Merrill 
with Thomas George, were the first petitioners for the setting 
off of a tract of land, lying partly in Chester, partly in London- 
derry, and other land not heretofore appropriated, to be united 
and form a new township, which request was granted and the 
new town incorporated under the name of Derryfield in 175 1 

William P. Merrill. 


Nathaniel, the ninth child of Abraham, settled in Hallsville, 
now East Manchester, and married (first), Mary Young, daugh- 
ter of Israel Young, by whom he had five children, the second 
of whom was Israel, who married Nancy Farmer, and settled on 
the east bank of the Merrimack, just below the Amoskeag Falls, 
Captain Israel Merrill, as he was afterwards known, was em- 
ployed by the boating company on the river, and on his own 
account for many years, and is said to have possessed a more 
intimate knowledge of the stream, its depths and currents, be- 
tween Lowell and Concord, than any other man of that period. 
History has also preserved a record of "A boat race between 
his boat and another, which continued all the way from Boston 
to Concord, and that after a very exciting contest, each striving 
for the advantage, Merrill won by the length of a boat or so." 
Captain Merrill was pilot of the steamer that made its first trip 
to Concord, in 1817. He was a man of great muscular strength 
and wholly without fear, and to the imminent danger of his own 
life rescued, at different times, several persons from drowning. 
ForHhe saving of the lives of two men and a boy on one occa- 
sion, he was presented with an elegant and costly gold medal 
suitably inscribed, from the Massachusetts Humane Society, 
which is still in the possession of his descendants. After boat- 
ing on the river was given up he purchased a farm on the Mer- 
rill road in the Harvey district where he resided until his death, 
ever manifesting by word and deed a deep interest in the church 
of which he was a devoted member, and for the general welfare 
and prosperity of the town. 

William Parker Merrill, the immediate subject of this sketch, 
was the eighth child of Capt. Israel Merrill and was born August 
2 3> 1831. He inherited many of the sterling qualities of his 
ancestors. He received his early education in the schools of 
his native town, counting among his schoolmates such men as 
the late Governor Weston, Joseph L. Stevens and others who 
became prominent in after life. He completed his education at 
Tilton Seminary in 1848 9, where he made the acquaintance of 
the late John M. Shirley, Esq., of Andover, an acquaintance which 
ripened into intimate friendship and which terminated only with 


the death of the latter some years ago. On the death of his 
father in 1854, Mr. Merrill succeeded to the possession of the 
old farm which he carried on until a year or two before his 
death. He married July 13, i860, Charlotte Maria Boyce, who 
died February 1, 1901. He was skillful as a farmer, success- 
ful in raising a multiplicity of crops and the growing of a large 
and excellent variety of fruits. He also found time to give to 
public affairs, serving on the School Board for several years, and 
holding other offices. He was a faithful public servant and gave 
prompt attention to every act of official duty. In politics he was 
a staunch Democrat, caring little for office, but always zealous for 
the success of his party, frank and firm in the expression of his 
opinions. He was an Odd Fellow, a member of the Patrons of 
Husbandry, and active in the affairs of the Old Residents' Asso- 
ciation. He was especially fond of travel and ample means 
had permitted him to gratify his desires in this direction. He 
had twice visited Europe, and for some seasons had spent the 
winter months in Florida and California. It was while on his 
return from a trip to the Southwest and the Pacific Coast that 
he was stricken down. He had been for some days suffering 
from a severe cold with symptoms of pneumonia, and on reach- 
ing El Paso, Texas, he was too ill to continue his journey 
further, and was removed to the hospital in that city, where 
he died among strangers, March 5, 1902. His remains were 
brought to his home in this city and buried in the old burial- 
ground near his home beside the dear relatives and friends who 
had preceded him. He was survived by two sons, Shirley 
Merrill of this city and Oliver Merrill of Londonderry. 

His friends will ever recall his love for his native city, his 
great interest in its cherished institutions. Kind and sym- 
pathetic, he had charity tor the weaknesses of others, a deep 
and abiding sympathy for the poor, and tenderness and love 
for those in affliction. S. A. O. 

William H. Elliott. 



William H. Elliott, son of John S. Elliott, was born in Lon- 
donderry, September 5, 1821. Whatever education the good 
district schools of that town had to give he had received by 
the time he was nineteen years of age, when he opened a store 
in Manchester, having previously learned the trade of a watch- 
maker. To this he added the manufacture of spectacles and 
the sale of pianos, organs and musical instruments. This was 
in 1840 and the older residents of the city will remember Mr. 
Elliott as a leader in these branches of business for many years. 

In 1842 he married Serena Cilley of Hopkinton, by whom 
he had eight children, two of whom survive him, the Rev. 
Charles F. Elliott of Greeley, Col., and Mrs. Ida F. Smith of 
South Pines, X. C. Mr. Elliott devoted himself very closely 
to his business, was a man of fine personal presence and had 
an impressive way of conducting a trade which arose almost 
to the dignity of a fine art. Consequently he was successful 
in building up a large trade and was well known the country 

Mr. Elliott died August 16, 1902, and the Mirror and 
America?! said of him: 

"A polished gentleman of the old school, kindly in manner, 
sympathetic in spirit, always careful of the feelings of others, 
he applied the golden rule to his business life, and by careful- 
ness and integrity built a business reputation than which there 



was none better in his native state. He must surely be missed 
from the city which had so long respected and admired him." 

A skillful and industrious mechanic, undisturbed by any 
desire for office or political preferment and with good judg- 
ment as to financial matters, he could hardly fail in the long 
time given him to acquire a very considerable fortune. Not 
far from the time when Mr. Elliott and his wife began life 
together they occupied the house on Central street, vacated by 
the late ex-Governor Frederick Smyth. At that time Monu- 
ment square was little more than a cow pasture, shaded on its 
northeast corner by some magnificent pines. In succeeding 
years he built other houses, the most pretentious of which was 
that now owned and occupied by the Hon. D. A. Taggart. 
There are few incidents in the steady and orderly career of this 
well-known citizen. It perhajDS may be worthy of record that 
while a tenant in Smyth block, a burglar with dynamite and 
jimmy failed to effect an entrance into his safe, of which the 
outer lock was forced and dynamite with fuse attached found 
in the door plate. 

After a lively sprint through Elm back street the burglar 
was captured by the police and his tools secured from the adja- 
cent park, where he had thrown them. He was convicted and 
sentenced for a term in state prison, but was afterward par- 
doned out on account of ill health. 

Mr. Elliott erected some of the best residences in the city 
and built a twenty-tenement block at the corner of Chestnut 
and Pearl streets. He was a member of Washington Lodge, 
Mt. Horeb Chapter, Royal Arch Masons and Trinity Com- 
mandery, Knights Templar. 

His first wife died November 26, 1897, and he married for 
second wife, Mrs. Helen M. Jones, who survives him. 

F. B. E. 



G-ilman Clough was born in Weare, N. H., February 24, 
1825. He came of Eevolutionary stock. His grandfather 
was Daniel Clough, Sr., a blacksmith by trade, who settled in 
South Weare previous to the Eevolutionary war, in which he 
served as a soldier. During his term of service, which appears 
to have been exceedingly long, he was granted a furlough of 
three months. The records show that he had to go to law to 
secure payment for the furlough, but he won his suit. He 
reared several children, and of these the only one to remain in 
Weare was Daniel, Jr., Gilman's father, who was born in 
Haverhill, Mass. He was favorably known as a reliable black- 
smith, according to an old-time chronicle, and he also gained 
a local reputation as a player on the violin. 

Gilman was one of the twelve children of Daniel and Mary 
(Colby) Clough, the brother and sister surviving him being 
respectively the oldest and the youngest of the family. In 
1848, Gilman married Miss Nancy E. Locke, of Dunbarton, 
who survives him, and who, like himself, comes from one of 
the oldest New England families. Mrs. Clough, in the fullest 
sense of the expression, became a partner and helpmate to her 
plucky husband. Shortly after their marriage the young 
couple took up their residence in Amoskeag, near to the road 
leading to Goffstown Center, now known as Grasmere. Later 
they removed to what has since become known as the Governor 
Straw place, and which was then a farm. 

For about ten years Mr. Clough worked in a grist mill, 
which was in operation above the McGregor bridge, and which 
was then known as Mechanics' Eow. The mill was owned by 
H. & H. E. Pettee, which firm afterwards became Pettee & 
Adams, and is now Adams Brothers. During those years Mr. 
Clough worked very hard, often gaining two or three days 7 
extra time by overwork. For a considerable time he made it a 
practice to work until midnight upon Saturday, and resume 


bis task upon thu following midnight. In 1859 hie removed to 
the Mil] Dam house, where lie resided until 1867, when he 
took up his residence at 395 Maple street, where he remained 
until his death. 

In 1859 he drifted into the lumber business in a small way, 
which, under his careful and sagacious management grew until 
it became his leading enterprise, and raised him from a penni- 
less young man to one of the wealthiest citizens of Manchester. 
He was widely known as one of the largest and most extensive 
lumber dealers in the state, and he had associated with him a 
number of partners, including the late Lewis Simons and 
George Foster, of the Chandler place in Bedford. His keen 
foresight led him to realize closely the value of real estate, and 
he came hoth to deal and invest largely in this, until he owned 
several valuable real estate properties on Elm street, includ- 
ing the block now occupied by the Xew City Hotel. His 
latest achievement in this direction was building, in company 
with B. Frank Welch, the handsome and well-appointed busi- 
ness block known as "The Beacon." 

Politically Mr. Clough was a Democrat of the Jacksonian 
type, but he never sought an office or took an active part in 
politics. Neither did he belong to any secret organization, 
and the only society that could claim him as member was the 
Manchester Historic Association. Till within a short time of 
his death he personally looked after his property interests, and 
attended to his business affairs, though he had sometime since 
relinquished his attention to dealings in lumber to his son, 
Lewis A. Clough. Mr. Clough was at the same time the most 
quiel and one of the best known citizens of Manchester, and 
the success of his life shows what can lie accomplished by the 
steady, industrious young man. who starts out with the deter- 
mination to work and to prosper, building his prosperity upon 
the sterling foundation of honest purpose. 

George W. Weeks. 



Tradition, which in this case seems to be kin to fact, 
says that the first ancestor of this honorable family in New 
England came from Wells, Somersetshire, England, and set- 
tled at Winnicut river, that part of Portsmouth now form- 
ing the town of Greenland. His name was Leonard Weeks, 
but nothing is known of his father. He reached the site of 
his new home in February, 1660-61, where he passed the rest 
of his life, dying in 1707. He was active in the affairs of the 
day, and during the political contest in 1665 respecting the 
separation of New Hampshire from Massachusetts he espoused 
the cause of the last named, incurring considerable expense 
as well as public rebuke for his outspoken opinions relative to 
the matter. We learn by the records that he was fined to the 
amount of ten shillings for the vehemence with which he 
stated his arguments in controversy with another of opposite 
views. In 1666, he was elected selectman, and he was after- 
wards constable, while for several years he was sheriff. In 
1669, he "was on a committee" with men from Dover and 
Hampton, "to lay out the highway between Greenland and 
Bloody Poynt." 

George Warner Weeks, the subject of this memoir, was born 
in Boscawen, N. H., August 12, 1827, the son of Dudley J. 
and Lucy Sampson Weeks, being the youngest of their five 
children. His mother dying when he was less than a year 
old, George was taken into the family of Rev. Parker D. Fogg. 

Mrs. Fogg, who was Betsey Sampson, a sister to his mother, 
took a motherly interest in his care, and leaving most pleas- 
ant memories in his youthful mind. Mr. Weeks in later years 
always spoke of her as "Mother Fogg." At the age of fifteen 
he went to live with his eldest sister, Mary Jane, who had 
become the wife of the widely known harness maker of Hook- 
sett, Benjamin J. Gile. George worked a short time in his 
shop, and then came to Manchester, where he worked in the 


pioneer factory of the then young manufacturing town. 
Within a year, however, we find him in Boston, and when he 
was but a little over sixteen, he shipped as cabin boy on a 
merchant ship bound for Calcutta and the Indian Archipelago. 
The experiences of that two years' voyage upon one of the old- 
line trading vessels was such as to leave a permanent impres- 
sion on the mind of him who participated in them. Among 
other adventures that fell to the lot of our cabin boy was the 
burning of the vessel to the water's edge while on the return 
voyage. This thrilling incident took place off the shore of 
St. Helena, which island became a haven of refuge to the 
castaways. During his stay here George sought the tomb of 
Paul and Virginia, where he inscribed his name, a fact that 
he always delighted to refer to in speaking of his thrilling 
story of sea adventures. 

Upon reaching his home-land he sought again the town of 
Manchester, teaching school for several years in the Harvey dis- 
trict. During this period he formed the pleasant acquaint- 
ance of one of Hopkinton's fair daughters, and upon Sep- 
tember 27, 1846, he was united in marriage with Miss Sarah 
E. Mead, the daughter of Albeacham and Susan Clough 
Mead. This union proved extremely felicitous, and the couple 
made their home here in Manchester. Three children were 
born to them: Laura A., who died at six years of age; Medora, 
who married Alonzo Elliott; and George Perley, who settled in 
Haverhill, Mass. The last two, as well as the widow and four 
grandchildren, survived him. 

Mr. Weeks had been attracted to the shoe business, and he 
entered soon after his marriage the employ of Asa S. Trask, 
who both made and sold footwear at 48 Elm street, midway 
between Hanover and Amherst streets. Through his steady 
industry and frugal habits Mr. Weeks had saved enough from 
his wages so that in 1853 he was able to take advantage of 
panic price's, and buy up a stock of goods with which to begin 


trade for himself, which he did, realizing a handsome profit 
at the outset. From this he increased his business until he 
became one of the foremost shoe dealers in the city, sharing 
with George W. Dodge and George W. Thayer the honor of 
standing at the head of the boot and shoe trade in early 
Manchester. His shop was in the old building known as 
"The Ark," which stood where the Weeks block now stands. 
He continued in his business without a break until 1873, when 
for a short time he gave it up, only to return for another 
period a little later. Finally he retired permanently from the 
shoe business, and entered into fire insurance, in which calling 
he showed such marked success he was made vice-president of 
the People's Fire Insurance Company, filling the position with 
credit to himself. In 1890, he withdrew from insurance, and 
devoted the balance of his years to the care of his real estate. 

As well as a man of strict business principles, Mr. Weeks 
was a steadfast patron of music and a strong friend to educa- 
tion. He was a member of the school board for several terms, 
and president of the board for years. He was firm in his reli- 
gious convictions, and one of the most zealous and energetic 
supporters of the Unitarian church, being for several years 
president of the society. In summing up his character one 
of the local papers at the time of his decease (The Union) said: 

"Mr. Weeks was one of the valuable men of the community. 
Sound to the core in principle, he was a stalwart figure in busi- 
ness circles, while his tastes led him to interest himself in 
religion and the artistic side of life, in which spheres his in- 
fluence was always wholesome. For more than half a cen- 
tury he was in the public eye of this city, as a business man, a 
leader in educational councils, a progressive religious layman, 
a vigorous, many-sided man of affairs, and as those fifty years 
and more are looked back upon, it is with a feeling of pro- 
found esteem." 

His death occurred upon the evening of September 10, 1903, 


al his home. No. 102 Bay street, after a lingering illness aris- 
ing from a complication of diseases, fourteen days past his 
seventy-eighth birthday. He was a member of Lafayette 
Lodge, A. F. and A. M.; Mount Horeb Chapter, Eoyal Arch 
Masons : Adoniram Council, Eoyal and Select Masters ; and 
Trinity Commandery. Knights Templar. He was a member 
and Past Grand of Mechanics' Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., Past Grand 
Master of the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows of New Hamp- 
shire, and Past Grand Eepresentative to the Sovereign Grand 
Lodge of Odd Fellows of the United States. He became a 
member of the Manchester Historic Association at the quar- 
terly meeting, September 18, 1901. 

G. W. B. 


William Twombly Evans was the son of William and Han- 
nah (Twombly) Evans, and was born at Barrington, X. H., 
August 13, 1824, one of a family of eight children. His 
grandfather, Lemuel Evans, was a soldier in the Continental 
army and a short time prior to his death received a land pen- 
sion in recognition of his services. Both his grandfather and 
father lived to the advanced age of ninety-six years. 

Mr. Evans was married November 10, 1847, to Adaline 
Frances Clough, of Bow, and they celebrated their golden 
wedding in 1897. Four children were born to them, two 
dying quite young, while a daughter, Addie L., died at seven- 
teen, leaving one daughter, Grace W., who, with her mother, 
survives him of the immediate family. Having already been 
working in Manchester about two years, he now came to make 
this city his permanent home. "He first went to work for the 
late John H. Maynard," said The Mirror in its notice of his 
decease, "and was afterwards employed in the Manchester mills 
for about twenty years. He had charge of the repair depart- 
ment for a Long time. 


"He was elected superintendent of streets of Manchester in 
the early seventies and served two terms, was out a year and 
was then re-elected for another term. He performed the duties 
of his office in a faithful and efficient manner and earned the 
high respect of his fellow citizens. Some of Manchester's im- 
portant streets were built under his supervision. 

"After his final term of office he went into the wood-work- 
ing business for a time, but for many years past he had been 
engaged in the real estate business, making the care of tene- 
ments his specialty. He gave his close attention to this up 
to the time of his last illness, and displayed unusual energy 
and activity for a man of his years. 

"Captain Evans was a prominent figure in the old volunteer 
tire department and was chosen foreman of Engine 6 Com- 
pany in the early fifties. He not only distinguished himself 
as a fearless tire fighter and a skillful leader of his company, 
but under his captaincy the company won fame in many of the 
big hand tub tournaments of those days. The title of cap- 
tain, which was conferred upon him then, clung to him in 
after years, as his fellow citizens and former associates remem- 
bered his good works in the volunteers. 

"Captain Evans was afterwards a member of the regular 
tire department and was attached to one of the companies at 
the central fire station on Vine street. He was with the Man- 
chester contingent that went to Boston to render aid at the big 
tire in November, 1871. He retired from the department 
when elected to the head of the street department. 

"Captain Evans was a member of the Manchester Old Resi- 
dents' Association, the Manchester Historical Association, and 
the Franklin-street Congregational church. He was active in 
Odd Fellow circles and was a member of Mechanics' Lodge and 
Wonolanset Encampment. He was a stanch Democrat in 
politics and was an active worker for the party. He kept up 
a keen interest in political work to the last year of his life, 


and the first election lie missed in the memory of his family 
was the special election on the license question. Then his 
health was too feeble for him to go to the polls. 

"The deceased was a man of high principles, and his stanch 
honesty, intelligence and high characteristics won him the 
esteem of all who enjoyed his acquaintance. He was a man 
of energy and activity, and sound judgment in business affairs 
marked his transactions in public and private life. His gen- 
erous and kindly nature and his ever courteous disposition 
made him a host of friends/' 

He died upon the evening of June 28, 1903, at the age of 
78 years, 10 months and 15 days. 


In the death of the Right Rev. Denis M. Bradley, Bishop of 
Manchester, the state has lost the best known, the most 
widely respected, and most beloved citizen within her borders. 
For eighteen years this prelate governed the diocese of Man- 
chester, which comprises the whole state of New Hampshire, 
and guided the destinies of the Catholic church within that 
jurisdiction. For four years previous to his ele\ r ation to the 
episcopate, he was pastor of St. Joseph's church, in the city of 
Manchester, but his connection with the state and city goes 
back even farther. Born in Ireland in 1846, he came to this 
country at the age of eight, with his widowed mother and 
five other children younger than himself. His childhood and 
youth were passed in the city that was one day to see him share 
the highest honors that the Catholic church can bestow. 

The Bishop as a boy was sent to the old Park Street school, 
which was then in charge of the veteran master, Thomas Cor- 
coran. His good mother toiled and spared to give the lad a 
superior education, and by the time he was ready for college 

~" ' - ' 



her scanty savings were sufficient to provide for him. In 
1863, lie entered Holy Cross College, Worcester, Mass., and 
was graduated from that institution in 1867. The fall of that 
year saw him begin his preparation for the priesthood at St. 
Joseph's Seminary, Troy, N. Y. Here he was ordained after 
four years' study, on June 3, 1871. 

The first four years of Bishop Bradley's life, after his re- 
turn to Manchester, were spent in the busy occupations of the 
pastorate of St. Joseph's church. New Hampshire was then 
set apart as a separate jurisdiction of the diocese of Portland, 
and the subject of this sketch was named as the first bishop 
of the new See. At this time Bishop Bradley was in his 
thirty-eighth year, the youngest bishop in the United States. 
Though not robust in health, he knew how to husband his 
strength, and he bent himself with energy to the great work 
before him. His first duty was to organize a new diocese. 
To those unacquainted with church government, it is diffi- 
cult to understand the extent and importance of a work of 
this kind. Upon the bishop devolves, ultimately, the care of 
all the souls of his diocese. It is his to provide pastors for 
them; his to see that they have suitable and convenient places 
of worship. Schools must be built, orphanages established, 
convents founded and maintained; so, too, with hospitals, 
homes for the aged; in short, every need of every class, young 
and old, must be provided for. 

In the eighteen years of Bishop Bradley's episcopate, the 
Catholic population of the state grew from 45,000 to 104,000. 
The number of priests increased from thirty-seven to one hun- 
dred. About forty new churches were built in different parts 
of the diocese. There are today 12,500 children taught by 
279 teachers in the parochial schools, the maintenance of 
which would cost the state $275,000 annually. In Catholic 
orphanages and asylums there are nine hundred children de- 
pending, entirely or in part, on charity for their daily bread. 


Two large, well-equipped hospitals take care of the sick, and 
ii is needless to say that difference of creed is no bar to ad- 
missio7i there. An academy for young ladies and a college for 
young men complete a Christian education for those who are 
able to continue their studies. Such are the works left behind 
by the good Bishop. Well may we say to the inquiring 
stranger who asks for his monument, "Look around you!" 

Bishop Bradley was a many-sided man. He was primarily 
a churchman. The great works he accomplished were done 
in the order of his priestly calling. He was a man of sterling 
Christian character, of pure motives, of lofty ideals. Nothing 
small or unworthy entered into his makeup. "'One felt in- 
stinctively.'" said an acquaintance not of his faith, "that every 
righteous cause would find in him a powerful champion, and 
every mean, self-seeking scheme would be uncompromisingly 
scorned." He was a man of deep spirituality. He thought 
and planned and labored for Eternity. His measure of any 
work was. "What does God think of it?" Such a rule of con- 
duct kept him from earthly entanglements. This does not 
mean that he was a recluse or a mystic. Far from it. No 
man entered more readily into all that concerned the common 
good. He was ever at the beck and call of his people. 

"To them his heart, his love, his griefs were given, 
But all his serious thoughts had rest in heaven." 

As a public speaker. Bishop Bradley graced many impor- 
tant occasions. He was known over all New England, and 
was called upon to preach in the larger cities at the consecra- 
tion of bishops, at the dedication of churches, on notable 
anniversaries, at college commencements, and the like, and 
he always acquitted himself with distinction and brought 
honor to the See he Tilled. His sermons were plain, direr!. 
forceful. His familiarity with (he Holy Scripture was seen 
by the frequent and apt use he made of Holy Writ in his 
discourse-. He preached the gospel undefiled. His earnest- 


ness, his sincerity, and his great charity added unction to his 
words which never failed to impress his hearers. 

Manchester never saw, and perhaps never will see, a more 
magnificent funeral. All the bishops of New England, prel- 
ates from different parts of the country, and priests to the 
number of two hundred and fifty assembled to pay their last 
tribute of respect to the honored dead. Civil authorities of 
both state and city were there in full numbers, and thousands 
of his own flock, unable to gain admission to the church, hung 
about the sacred edifice while the last rites were being offered. 
Such genuine grief is seldom evinced. The tear-dimmed 
eyes and the choking sobs of the throng which took a last look 
at the beloved prelate were a tribute more eloquent than that 
delivered from the bight of the pulpit that day. 

Bishop Bradley left no personal estate, but a small sum of 
life insurance to be divided between two orphan nieces. He 
served without salary as pastor of St. Joseph's cathedral par- 
ish for more than twenty years, and asked only that the parish 
bury him. The Christmas offerings in the parish church were 
devoted to that purpose. 

It was his dying request that a simple Celtic cross be placed 
in the little plot in front of the chapel door, where the people 
going in and out of church would see it and offer a prayer 
for the repose of his soul. To comply with this last wish 
will be one of the first duties of his successor in office. 



(The numbers in figures refer to the pages of the body of the magazine, while 
those in Roman numerals relate to the supplement.) 

Adams, James O., superintendent of schools, 192. 

Aged people of Dunbarton, 50. 

Amoskeag Manufacturing Co., first sale of land, 143. 

Analysis of Hanover spring water, 81; other springs, 84; Lake Massabesic 

water, 85. 
Ancestry of Chandler family, xxx ; Elliott, lv ; Ferren, li ; Kidder, xliii, xlvii ; 

Mungall, xli; Parker, xxi; Parkinson, xxxix; Pettee, xl; Proctor, xxxv; 

Weeks, lix, Wiggin, 1. 
Arnold, Benedict, his character, 88; expedition to Quebec, 88. 
Asiatic cholera in Manchester, G. C. Gilmore, 53. 


Bartlett, Charles H., memoir, xxiii; portrait, opposite xxiii. 

John P., with G. W. Morrison, 145. 
Blake, William B., " Water supply of Manchester," 79. 
Boatmen of the Merrimack, Kidder, 72. 

Bradley, Rt. Rev. D. M., memoir, lxiv; portrait, opposite lxiv. 
Briggs, J. F., " General James Wilson," 1. 
Brookhurst estate, 193. 
Brown, George H., residence, 202. 

Dr. Thomas, death, 55; heroic part in cholera epidemic, 54; char- 
acter, 211. 
Browne, G. Waldo, "Narrative of James Johnson, 60-66; " Derryfield in the 

Revolution," 110; " Josiah H. Drummond," 107-8. 
Brown homestead, picture of, opposite, 124. 
Brown's Island, picture of, 124. 
Bunton, Andrew, death of, iii. 


Campbell, Luther, est. of, 199. 

Canals and locks, 69. 

Carpenter, Josiah, house, 188. 

Catholic church, growth in New Hampshire, lxv. 

Cesar Harvey, 131-2. 

Champlain, lake, early names, 62. 

Chandler, John M., memoir, xxx: portrait, opposite xxx. 

Chapine, Hannah, 207 ; Jesse, 206-7. 

Charter members of Manchester Historic Association, iii. 

Christian brook, 187. 

Churches of Dunbarton, 36. 

Clapp, Allen N., death, iii. 

Clark, Lewis W., with Morrison, 144. 

Clough, Gilman, memoir, lvii. 

Cogswell house, the old, picture, 127. 

Cohas Drook, picture, 123. 

College graduates of Dunbarton, 43. 

Concord Railroad vs. Lawrence Railroad, controversy of 1856, 146-7. 

Corning, Warren, 208. 

Currier, Moody, 143; death, iii. 


lxx INDEX, 

Deceased members oi Manchester Historic Association, iii. 

Delaney, Rev. J. B., sketch of " Bishop Bradley," lxvii. 

Derryfleld in the Revolution, G. W. Browne, 110-11. 

Derryfleld men at Trenton, 114: Derryfleld nark, 31. 

Drummond, Josiah II., "The Two .lames Rogers," 97: sl<. of. 107; portrait. 107 

Dunbarton, sketch of, Ella Mills. 34: origin of name. 34. 

Early Recollections of Manchester, Joseph Kidder, 65. 

Eastman, Herbert, death, iii. 

Eaton, Francis 1?., " Story of Lake Massahesic," 121-138. 

Elliott, William H.. memoir, lv: portrait, opposite lv. 

Kim street, east side in the 40s, 213. 

Evans, William T., memoir, Ixii. 

Expedition to Quebec, 88. 

Falls road. 18S. 

Farm life fifty years ago, 1G3. 

Fellows, Joseph W., sketch of George W. Morrison, 139-158. 

Ferren, Ehen, memoir, li; portrait, opposite li. 

First town meeting in Dunbarton, 30. 

Fishermen of early Manchester, 74. 

Fitch, John Langdon. 144: Miss Maria, married to G. W. Morrison, 152. 

Flanders, Dr. Daniel, 208. 

Folsom, John, 130. 

Eolsom's tavern, 130-1; picture, opposite 131. 

Foster, John, " Story of a Private Soldier in the Revolution," 80. 

French, John C, elected president of Manchester Hist. Asso., ii: death, 

Gamble, John, 198. 

Susan Stark, 194. 
Gas pipes in Manchester, first, 101. 
General Stark's Home Farm, Roland Itowell, 183-202. 
Gilmore, George C, " Asiatic cholera in Manchester," 53. 
Goffstown's " Old-time Muster," Plumer, 174-5. 
Graduates of Dunbarton, 43. 
Graham, William, of Auburn, 121. 
Griffin, Sebastian S., " Major John Webster," 118. 
Gavel, box and block, given Manchester Historic Asso. by R. L. Reed, xi. 


Hale, John P., meets General Wilson, 16. 

Harris, Rev. Walter, of Dunbarton. 30. 

Hartshorn, Fred G., death, iii. 

Herrick, Mrs. Clarisa P., memoir, xxxviii: portrait, opposite xxxviii. 

Historic Quarterly, beginning, v. 

Indian trails to Canada, til. 

uprisings, 130. 
Industrial school, site of, 199. 
Islands of Lake Massahesic, 124. 
Island Pond House, 131. 

Jackson, President, visit to New Hampshire, 10. 
Johnson. James, sketch of. 60; deposition. 01. 

INDEX. lxxl 


Kidder, Joseph, " Early Recollections of Manchester," 65; memoir, xxvi; por- 
trait, opposite xliv. 
Nathan P., memoir, xxvi; portrait, opposite xxvi. 
Kimball, Oilman II., est. of, 192; Tavern, 200. 
Kimball House, 189. 
Keene light infantry, 12. 
Kennard burned, 10. 

Lake Massabesic, Story of, F. B. Eaton, 121-138; size of, 122; view, opp. 121. 
Leavitt, Orrin H., " Old Bridge-Street Pound," 27. 
Leateh, Deacon William, 135. 
Library in Dunbarton, first, 50. 
Locks and canals in Manchester, 69. 


Major John Webster, S. S. Griffin, 118. 
Manchester as a Village, William E. Moore, 211-214. 

in 1843, old view, 70. 

in 1854, from a painting by Bachelder, frontispiece. 

Historic Association, history, i-iii. 
Marking historic sites, lxv. 

Massabesic, story of, F. B. Eaton, 121: origin of name, 121; hotels, first, 129. 
Members elected to Manchester Historic Association, viii, xii, xiv. 
Memoirs, Manchester Historic Association, 1902, xxi; 1903, lv. 
Menagerie, first in Manchester, 75. 
Merrill, William P., memoir, lii; portrait, opposite lii. 
Military force of New Hampshire, 1859, 179. 
Mills, Miss Ella, sketch of Dunbarton, 33. 
Mills about Lake Massabesic, 134. 
Molly Stark's Gentlemen Son, Mary C. Crawford, xvi. 
Montalona, part of Dunbarton, 33. 
Moore, William E., " Manchester as a Village," 211: " Pock Pimmon," 58. 

death, iii. 
Morrison, George W., J. W. Fellows, 139-158; portrait, opposite 139. 
Mount Royal, Can. des. fortifications, 63. 
Mungall, Andrew, memoir, xli; portrait, opposite xlii. 
Muster, an old-time, by J. Trask Plumer, 172; old-time laws, 373. 


Narrative of James Johnson, by G. W. Browne, 60-66. 
New Hampshire regiment in Canada, '76, 91. 

Ninth regiment officers, 180-1. 
Normal school graduates, 43. 

Officers of Manchester Historic Association, first, ii; 1903, back of title page. 
Offutt, Mrs. Ann M., 130. 

Edward P., 127. 
Old Ark, 143. 

Old Bridge-Street Pound, Orrin H. Leavitt, 27. 
Old Cogswell house, picture and des., 127. 
Old fair grounds, 187-8 ; first house, 188. 
Old New England Pooftrees, M. C. Crawford, xv. 
Old Time Muster, J. Trask Plumer, 172-182. 
Old police court, 214. 

Organization of Manchester Historic Association, i ; original members, iii. 
Original Massabesic hotel, 129. 
Old Folsom tavern, picture, opposite 131. 
Old town house, 76. 



Papers published by Manchester Historic Association, v-vi 

Parker, Francis W., memoir, xxi. 

Perkins, Capt. David, personal efforts in behalf of M. H A lv 

David L., death, iii. 

David P., 151. 
Pest-house on Mammoth road, 31. 
Pettee, Horace, memoir, xl: portrait, opposite xl, 
Platts, Clarence M., " Small-pox Epidemic in Manchester, 1834 203 
Plumer J. Irask, " Then and Now," 159; " Old-Time Muster,'' 172 
Pound keepers, 30. ' 

Proceedings Manchester Historic Association, vii, ix, xiii. 
Proctor, John, 134. 

Luther S., 134; memoir, xxxv; portrait, opposite xxxiv. 

Quarterly meeting, first, iii. 
Quebec expedition under Arnold, 

Railroad, first in New Hampshire, 73. 

legislation, famous case of 1856, 14G. 
Ray brook, 191. 
Pay brook estate, 193. 
Pay, John. 191; children of, 191-2; farm, 193. 

resofutioJof'tn^nks* P™ 1 a " d block ' vii: elected honorary member, viii: 
Reform school, site of, 199; origin of, "00 
Regimental districts in New Hampshire, 173. 
Religious services in early Manchester, 77. 
Richardson, Mary L., 6. 
Rivermen of Manchester, 72. 
Riverside estate, 193. 
Roads of Manchester, 68. 

Rock Runmon, sketch, 58; origin of name, 58; picture, opposite 58 
Rogers James 34; deeds of, 98; of Londonderry, 97; of Dumbarton 10^ 

Major Robert, 51; 104. 
Powell, Captain John P., estate, 201. 

Ephraim K. , estate, 202. 

Roland, " General Stark Home Farm," 183; with Morrison, 145. 


Scammell, Third New Hampshire regiment in '76, 91. 

School books fifty years ago, 164; life fifty years ago, 164. 

Schools, early recollections of, 69. 

Schoolhouses, first in Dunbarton, 40. 

Scotch-Irish, traits of, 140. 

Smallpox epidemic in 1834, C. M. Platts, 203-210. 

Smyth house, site of, 189. 

Soldiers of Dunbarton, 51. 

Springs of Manchester, 28, si. 

St. Lawrence river, name of, 62. 

St. Francis mission, history, 63. 

Stanley, Judge ('. W., 144-5. 

Stark, Archibald, 34, 184-5. 

Augustus, estate, 195. 

Benjamin F., 195. 

Caleb, 47, xvi. 

Charles, estate, 199. 

Frederick (;.. 187; estate, 201-2. 

General John, 89, 186 

Gradus B., estate. 201. 

index. Ixxiii 

Stark, John, 2d, 186; children of, 190. 

John, 3d, estate, 194. 

Miss Mary, of Dunbarton, 39. , 

Samuel, estate, 197. 

Susan, estate, 198. 
Stark burying ground, a gift to the city, 195. 

home in Dunbarton, xvii. 

park, a gift to the city, 197. 

farm, valuation of, 202. 

well, 199. 
Starkstown, original Dunbarton, 34. 
Stevens' farm, 31. 
Stillwater, battle of, 91. 

Story of a Private Soldier in the Revolution, John Foster, 
Stowell, Col. Josiah, 204. 
homestead, 204. 
Sullivan's expedition in Mohawk valley, 194. 
Summer boarders in Dunbarton, 50. 
cottages, 135. 

Taxpayers in Derryneld in '7G, 111. 

Teachers of Dunbarton, 41. 

Temple, Charles W., memoir, xlvii. 

Thaxter grant, 183. 

Then and Now, J. Trask Plumer, 159. 

Three taverns, the, at Lake Massabesic, 127. 

Truesdale, William A., memoir, xxiv. 

Two James Rogers, The, Josiah H. Drummond, 91 


Underbill machine shops, 135. 
Uniform, state militia, 173-4. 
Union building, Manchester, 212. 

Valley Forge, winter at, 92. 


Wallace, Rev. C. W., 77. 

Dr. Thomas, 207. 
Water supply of Manchester, William B. Blake, 79. 
Webber house, 188. 
Webster, Major John, S. S. Griffin, 118. 

Joseph P., birthplace, 132. 
Weeks, George W., memoir, lix ; portrait, opposite lix. 

Leonard, lix. 
Weston, Joseph R., memoir, xxxvii. 

observatory, road leading to, 31. 
Wheeler. William P., 15. 

Wiggin, Joseph H., memoir, xlix; portrait, opposite xlix. 
Wilkins, J. Mck., 200. 
Willows, picture, 137. 
Wilson, General James, Hon. James F. Briggs, 1-26: portrait, opposite l.